Archive for January, 2020

BBC Accused of Misleading Reporting About Melting Antarctic Glacier

January 30, 2020

Every morning I get these annoying “click bait” pop-ups on my phone, which I usually ignore. This morning I weakened, and tapped the headline:

Antarctica Melting: Climate change and the journey to the “doomsday glacier”.

Knowing a bit about Antarctica, I dismissed it as more BBC rubbish, but just a few minutes ago I received a message from the Institute of Public Affairs with a link to a press release and article by the Global Warming Policy Forum. Here it is in full:

Press Release 29/01/20
 
BBC Accused of Misleading Reporting About Melting Antarctic Glacier
 
Why did the BBC fail to mention the volcanoes underneath?

London, 29 January: The Global Warming Policy Forum has criticised the BBC for misleading the public about the melting of the Thwaites Glacier.
 
In its numerous reports online, on radio and on television, the BBC blamed the melting of this Antarctic glacier on climate change. However, the BBC’s reports do not mention an important fact that has been widely known and that the BBC itself has reported previously – the influence of volcanoes beneath the glacier.
 
Scientists have known for years that subglacial volcanoes and other geothermal “hotspots” underneath the glacier are contributing to the melting of the Thwaites Glacier.

“Despite claims about climate change and admonition to lower our greenhouse gas emission as a way to ameliorate the melting of Thwaites, the BBC should have been pointing out that what is happening underneath the glacier could be in large parts an act of geology and one of those natural and globally-important dynamics that have been occurring throughout the ages,” said GWPF science editor Dr David Whitehouse.

What is more, the scientists will remain on Thwaites for a while. They have not analysed their data yet, so claims that they have confirmed “the Thwaites glacier is melting even faster than scientists thought…” are premature.

…..

More information about the Thwaites Glacier and the BBC’s misleading reporting can be found on the GWPF website.

I have long suspected that any warming in Antarctica might be due to the large volcanic province beneath West Antarctica, when UAH satellite temperatures show no sign of Antarctic warming, as I have shown here.

I’m pleased the GWPF is onto it so quickly, and many thanks to the IPA for alerting me.

Downwelling Infra-Red Radiation and Temperature: Part 1

January 22, 2020

Way back in July last year I posted about the long term decrease in downwelling IR at Cape Grim and Alice Springs, despite rising CO2.

From the Bureau’s solar radiation glossary,
“Downward infrared irradiance is a measurement of the irradiance arriving on a horizontal plane at the Earth’s surface, for wavelengths in the range 4 – 100 μm (the wavelength emitted by atmospheric gases and aerosols). It is related to a `representative (or effective radiative) temperature’ of the Earth’s atmosphere by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law:
E = σ T4
Where: E = irradiance measured [W/m2]
σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant [5.67 x 10-8 W/m2/K4
T = representative atmospheric temperature [K]
Consequently, this quantity will continue to have a positive value, even at night time. It can be measured using an Eppley PIR pyrgeometer.”

As atmospheric temperature increases, DWIR must also increase. This would be a symptom of warming.
A reader commented: ”What we need is DWIR nighttime measurements only (preferably without clouds) in a location where there is little or no water vapour. Atacama Chile would be perfect. Alice Springs maybe but less so. i am willing to bet that one couldn’t measure the DWIR at night without clouds in Atacama because it would be so low.”
I am unable to get data for Atacama, but here is DWIR data for Alice Springs for July 2018. July is mid-winter and usually dry and cloud free. No rain fell in July 2018 at the Alice.
Figure 1 shows maxima and minima for the month:
While July had no rain, there were several large weather changes shown by the spikes and dips in temperature. Coldest temperatures were on 12-13-14 July.
Fig.1: Surface temperatures Alice Springs July 2018

Next, downwelling IR. The weather changes show up in IR as well.
Fig.2: Downwelling IR Alice Springs July 2018

Now for IR in the hours of darkness:
Fig.3: Downwelling IR Alice Springs July 2018 at night (6pm to 6am)

Clearly, DWIR is real and measurable at night, in all conditions. It usually (but not always) decreases in a smooth curve. Putting it together, we see a clear daily cycle: DWIR usually increases rapidly in daytime, and decreases at night.
Fig.4: Downwelling IR Alice Springs July 2018 by day and night

Now we look at typical IR behaviour in cool, dry conditions on 12 and 13 July 2018. The x-axis is in 3 hourly divisions and I have marked in midnight of 12-13.
Fig.5: Downwelling IR Alice Springs 12-13 July 2018

Note the curve is not completely smooth: there are little variations due to pockets of different temperatures in the air. The lowest DWIR values (227.36 Watts/sq.metre averaged over one minute) are reached around 8.00 a.m. shortly after sunrise, then values rise rapidly before tapering off to peak in the late afternoon. During the night they decrease until the sun heats the ground again in the morning.
Now for the period 5 to 8 July:
Fig.6: Downwelling IR Alice Springs 5-8 July 2018

On the 6th and 8th strange things happen after midnight, almost certainly clouds.
Strange things also happen from 23 to 25 July. On the 24th a heavy bank of cloud comes over and clears with a sudden dry change after sundown, with more separated clouds arriving later at night before finally clearing about 9 a.m. next morning.
Fig.7: Downwelling IR Alice Springs 23 – 25 July 2018

How do I know those spikes were caused by clouds? Here’s direct radiation and IR for 23-25 July.
Fig.8: Downwelling IR and Direct Irradiance Alice Springs 23 – 25 July 2018

Direct irradiance is the radiation from the sun’s direct beam. It is zero at night but rises rapidly to peak at local solar noon, then rapidly falls to zero at dusk. Not all solar radiation reaches the surface. Some is reflected, some is scattered by dust, smoke, or rain drops, but on a clear day the pattern is like 23 July. On 24 July clouds block the sun’s direct rays for most of the day, and downwelling IR increases markedly. This is from warm moist air in the cloud which has come from somewhere else.
My conclusion:
Downwelling infra-red radiation (so called “back radiation”) is real and measurable including at night.
It is greatly increased by cloud and humidity, and there is always some moisture in the air even in the desert.
It results from the ground heating up in the daytime, which then loses heat by conduction, convection, and radiation, into the atmosphere where the IR is repeatedly absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gases (including water vapour).
A warmer atmosphere from whatever cause, natural or enhanced, will result in greater downwelling IR.


Future posts will look at the relationship between solar radiation, downwelling IR, and temperature.

Australia’s Wacky Weather Stations: Final Summary

January 16, 2020

(Updated 17/01/2020)

Australia, being a wealthy, modern, western nation with a very well-resourced Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), might be expected to have weather stations that set a high standard of siting and reliability.

Unfortunately, that is far from the case.  This pie chart shows the percentage of weather stations that comply with siting specifications, don’t meet those specifications, or are “marginal”- not fully compliant but not as bad as some.

Nearly half do not comply with siting guidelines as outlined in Observation Specification No. 2013.1 (drafted in January 1997).

Less than a third comply and may be relied on (assuming that the screen and the immediate area around it is kept well maintained with a few centimetres of natural grass, and the surrounding environment does not change).

The marginal stations may or may not be reliable.

In Australia it is apparently quite OK to have thermometers beside houses, in bitumen carparks, in a vegetable garden surrounded by a corrugated iron fence, beside incinerators, behind 6 metre prison walls, beside piles of human excrement, in the middle of a dirt road, on the roof of a wharf shed, beside a multi-lane highway, shaded by trees, or in screens that are covered in spider webs, invaded by mud wasps, or used by cattle as a back-scratcher.  The area around the screens can be dusty bare dirt, overgrown with grass and weeds, or sprayed out to bare ground.

This map, thanks to Lance Pidgeon, shows the locations of weather stations audited.

As you can see, removing non-compliant and marginal sites leaves very large gaps.

Australia’s climate analysis is based on 112 stations in the ACORN-SAT network.  I surveyed 111 Acorn stations.  (Wittenoom stopped reporting in July 2019 and is now apparently closed).  Here is a pie chart of Acorn station compliance:

Again, thanks to Lance, this is a map of Australian Acorn stations….

…and this map shows the layout of the Acorn network with non-compliant stations removed, leaving marginal and compliant sites.

Only New South Wales has a decent density of compliant sites.  There are huge gaps in Queensland, Western Australia, and South Australia.  No wonder the Bureau is desperately defending their realm!

Here are the non-compliant Acorn sites.

Adelaide (Kent Town)Mackay
Albany AirportMarble Bar
BarcaldineMarree Airport
BridgetownMelbourne (Olympic Park)
CamoowealMerredin
Cape BordaMildura
Cape BrunyMiles
Cape LeeuwinMorawa Airport
Cape MoretonMoruya Heads
Cape OtwayNuriootpa
Charters TowersPoint Perpendicular
Coffs Harbour AirportRichmond (Qld)
Cunderdin AirportRobe
DalwallinuRockhampton
DeniliquinRutherglen
Geraldton AirportScone Airport
GilesSnowtown
Halls CreekSydney – Observatory Hill
HobartTownsville
KalumburuWandering
KerangWilcannia Airport
KyancuttaWilsons Promontory
Larapuna (Eddystone Point)Woomera
LongreachYamba

Summary

Of 666 weather stations I was able to identify and survey, nearly half (328) did not comply with siting specifications.

Less than a third (209) fully comply (assuming that the screens and surroundings are well maintained).

Another 129 are marginal- not fully compliant but not as bad as the non-compliant sites.

48 of the 111 remaining Acorn stations are not compliant, and a further 22 are marginal.

The Bureau of Meteorology starts its climate analysis using Acorn from 1910.  Reasons given are that the network, especially in remote areas, and also Western Australia and Tasmania,  was extremely sparse before this, and except in Queensland and South Australia (where Clement Wragge had instituted Stevenson screens and standardised practises by the mid-1890s) temperature observations and instrument siting were non-standard.  Temperature records before 1910 are not recognised by the Bureau.  For example, the hottest temperature recorded, 53.1C at Cloncurry on 16 January 1889 is discounted as it was not recorded in a Stevenson screen; and the temperature of 51.6C in Bourke on 3 January 1909 is discounted, even though it was in a Stevenson screen.  How can we be any more confident in current temperatures recorded at non-compliant sites?

With only 209 stations of the 666 surveyed fully complying with specifications, doubt must be raised not only about the modern network coverage but also the reliability and comparability of modern and historical temperature records.

The next step:

Over some time, I will be comparing data from several pairs of compliant and non-compliant stations to see if siting has any detectable effect on temperatures recorded.

Appendix:- Background and details of survey: 

In July 2019 I commenced a 6 month long survey of 666 weather stations that currently report temperatures to the Latest Weather Observations pages for each state (also to Climate Data Online and to international weather and climate agencies).  Many are used to make adjustments to Acorn stations. Of the 753 stations listed (and these change from time to time) I was able to identify and examine 666. 

I did not include offshore island territories or islands far distant from the mainland (e.g. Willis island) but islands close to the coast were included.  Other stations not included were those in the National Tidal Centre network, which are located on wharves and breakwaters and have beehive screens instead of Stevenson screens; Lucas Heights nuclear facility; a number of recent defence stations that were impossible to locate; stations in areas where satellite imagery has poor resolution, and a number of sites that have not yet been included in the BOM metadata and thus have no site plans and can’t be located- a good example is Wellcamp Airport in southern Queensland. (See below for the full list.)

The process I used is outlined  in my post “How to check for yourself”.  I also made use of information and photographs supplied by colleagues with local knowledge.

There are 328 examples of stations that are not compliant with specifications, listed by state here.

This is an example of a compliant station:  Amberley AMO  40004 which is an Acorn station.

Google satellite image: 

This is an example of a marginal station:  Nullo Mountain 62100

Google satellite image: 

It has patches of rougher/ longer vegetation nearby and a large tree about 20 metres away.

(And the more I look at marginal sites the more I find that I should really have classified more as not compliant.)

These are the marginal stations (Acorn marked *):

Adelaide AirportMiddle Point
ArmidaleMilingimbi
BatchelorMoomba Airport
Batemans BayMortlake
Bathurst *Moss Vale
Boulia *Mount Boyce
Bourke *Mount Bundey North (Defence)
Bowen Airport AWSMount Crawford
Bradshaw-Angallari Valley (Defence)Mount Ginini
BrisbaneMount Ive
Brisbane Airport *Mount Magnet Airport
BulmanMount Moornapa
Burketown Airport *Mudgee
Cape GrimNambour
Cape SorellNeptune Island
Central Arnhem PlateauNew May Downs
CerberusNgayawili (Elcho Island)
CharltonNgukurr AWS
CombienbarNhill Aerodrome *
CooktownNoarlunga
CoonawarraNoonamah
CootamundraNullo Mountain
Cowley Beach (Defence)Oakey
Cultana (Defence)Oodnadatta *
Darwin Airport *Orbost *
DerbyPalmerville *
Devonport AirportParramatta
Dum In MirriePearce
DwellingupPort Augusta
Eildon Fire TowerPort Fairy
ElliottPortland Airport
Esperance AirportRedland (Alexandra Hills)
Essendon AirportRhyll
Eucla *Sheffield
FingalSheoaks
Forrest *Shepparton
Fowlers GapSt George *
Gabo Island *Stawell
GelantipyStenhouse Bay
Grafton AirportSwan Hill
Grove *Sweers Island
Hamilton IslandSydney Olympic Park
Horn Island *Tabulam
Hume ReservoirTarcoola *
Hunters HillTaree Airport
Jervis Bay AirfieldTemora
JervoisTennant Creek *
kunanyi / Mount WellingtonTerrey Hills
Kununurra AirportThargomindah *
Lake JuliusThe Monument
Lake Macquarie – CooranbongTibooburra Airport *
Lake St ClairTocal
Lancelin (Defence)Townsville Air Weapons Range (Defence)
Launceston Airport *Trepell
Laverton (WA)Tunnack
Legendre IslandTurretfield
Leigh CreekVictor Harbor
Leonora AirportWadeye (Port Keats)
LombadinaWarruwi
LostockWhite Cliffs AWS
Low Head *Windorah
Luncheon HillWoolbrook
Mackay AirportYanakie
McArthur River MineYoung
Melbourne Airport

These are the stations listed in Latest Weather Observations that I did not use (plus offshore island territories). You are welcome to try- let me know if you have any success.

Adele IslandMelville Water
Arlington ReefMiddle Percy Island
Banana BankMount Buller
Barrow IslandMount Bundey South (Defence)
Bedout IslandMount Hope
Bradshaw-Koolendong ValleyMount Hotham Airport
BrewonMount Keith
Broome PortMount Read
Browse IslandMulurulu
Bulga DownsNoona
Burnie PortNorth Head
Busselton JettyNorth Island
Canungra (Defence)Oberon
Cape FergusonOcean Reef
Cape WesselOuter Harbor (Black Pole)
Christmas CreekPaynes Find
Colpoys PointPoint Avoid
CoondewannaPort Kembla Harbour
Croker Island AirportPortland Harbour
Darwin HarbourPuckapunyal-Lyon Hill (Defence)
Degrussa AerodromeRosslyn Bay Harbour
DoonganRowley Shoals
Edi UpperSellicks Hill
Esperance HarbourSmithville
Evans HeadSolomon Airport
Fawkner BeaconSouth Channel Island
Fort DenisonSpitfire Channel
Fortescue Dave ForrestSpring Bay
FrankstonSt Kilda Harbour RMYS
GluepotSwan Island
Gooseberry HillSydney Harbour
Hay PointThevenard Island
Heron IslandThursday Island
Hillarys Point Boat HarbourTownsville – Fanning River (Defence)
Hindmarsh IslandTroughton Island
Inner BeaconUrandangi
Kingfish BVaranus Island
KurnellWarburto Point
Little BayWarburton
LochingtonWattamolla
Low Rocky PointWellcamp Airport
Lucas Heights (ANSTO)West Roebuck
Maatsuyker IslandYampi Sound (Defence)
Maitland Airport

The Wacky World of Weather Stations by State

January 12, 2020

Here are 328 Australian weather stations that are not compliant with Bureau of Meteorology specifications for siting.

Site compliance is important because temperature data from these stations is liberally reported in the media especially if hot or cold records are set. They also contribute to AWAP (the Australian Water Availability Project) and ADAM which produce maps of present and past temperatures. As well, data from these stations is used to homogenise data at stations in Australia’s ACORN-SAT network, which are used for showing trends since 1910. Finally, this data is exported to be used by international databases (GISSCruTem4) for regional and global climate analysis. If the data is affected by site specific factors, e.g being too close to a road, this may affect the quality of the analysis.

I am agnostic as to the overall effect of these poorly sited stations. Maxima at some sites may be artificially low, or minima may be artificially high, and this may vary with seasons and rainfall. Analysis and comparison of temperatures will come later. My focus here is to show the large number of modern stations whose data may be unreliable.

The quality of these non-compliant stations varies. While some are truly horrendous, others are not nearly as bad, but all fail on one or more specifications.

Find your favourite station, click on it, and the link will take you to my assessment of its siting quality. Use the back arrow to return here.

South AustraliaVictoria
Adelaide (SA)Aireys Inlet (Vic)
Andamooka (SA)Ararat (Vic)
Arkaroola (SA)Avalon (Vic)
Cape Borda (SA)Bairnsdale (Vic)
Cape Willoughby (SA)Ben Nevis (Vic)
Cleve (SA)Cape Nelson (Vic)
Cleve Airport (SA)Cape Otway (Vic)
Cummins Airport (SA)Castlemaine (Vic)
Edinburgh (SA)Coldstream (Vic)
Edithburgh (SA)Dartmouth (Vic)
Elliston (SA)Echuca Airport (Vic)
Eudunda (SA)Falls Creek (Vic)
Kadina (SA)Ferny Creek (Vic)
Karoonda (SA)Horsham (Vic)
Keith (SA)Kerang (Vic)
Kimba (SA)Lake Eildon (Vic)
Kingscote (SA)Lakes Entrance (Vic)
Kuitpo (SA)Latrobe Valley  (Vic)
Kyancutta (SA)Longerenong (Vic)
Lameroo (SA)Maryborough (Vic)
Loxton (SA)Melbourne (Vic)
Maitland (SA)Mildura (Vic)
Marree (SA)Moorabbin (Vic)
Meningie (SA)Mount Nowa Nowa (Vic)
Minlaton Aero (SA)Mount William (Vic)
Minnipa (SA)Omeo (Vic)
Mount Barker (SA)Point Hicks (Vic)
Mount Lofty (SA)Redesdale (Vic)
Murray Bridge (SA)Rutherglen (Vic)
Naracoorte (SA)Scoresby (Vic)
Nullarbor (SA)Tatura (Vic)
Nuriootpa (SA)Viewbank (Vic)
Padthaway (SA)Walpeup (Vic)
Pallamana (SA)
Price (SA)Wangaratta (Vic)
Robe (SA)Warracknabeal (Vic)
Roseworthy (SA)Warragul (Vic)
Snowtown (SA)Warrnambool (Vic)
Streaky Bay (SA)Westmere (Vic)
Warooka (SA)Wilsons Promontory (Vic)
Whyalla (SA)Wonthaggi (Vic)
Woomera (SA)
Yongala (SA)Tasmania
Bushy Park (Tas)
Northern TerritoryCape Bruny (Tas)
Black Point (NT)Cape Bruny AWS (Tas)
Centre Island  (NT)Cressy (Tas)
Charles Point (NT)Dover (Tas)
Curtin Springs (NT)Flinders Island Airport (Tas)
Jabiru (NT)Friendly Beaches (Tas)
Kangaroo Flats (NT)Hartz Mountain (Tas)
Kintore (NT)Hobart (Tas)
Kulgera (NT)Lake Leake (Tas)
Lajamanu Airport (NT)Larapuna (Eddystone Pt) (Tas)
Murganella Airstrip (NT)Launceston (Tas)
Pirlangimpi (NT)Marrawah (Tas)
Point Fawcett (NT)Maydena (Tas)
Point Stuart (NT)Orford (Tas)
Territory Grape Farm (NT)Ouse (Tas)
Yulara Airport (NT)Scotts Peak (Tas)
Strahan (Tas)
Warra (Tas)
Wynyard (Tas)
West AustraliaNew South Wales
Albany (WA)Albury (NSW)
Albany Airport (WA)Balranald (NSW)
Argyle (WA)Bankstown (NSW)
Badgingarra (WA)Barraba (NSW)
Barimunya (WA)Bathurst Airport (NSW)
Beverley (WA)Bombala (NSW)
Bickley (WA)Bombala AWS (NSW)
Bidyadanga (WA)Brewarrina (NSW)
Bridgetown (WA)Burrinjuck Dam (NSW)
Busselton (WA)Cape Byron (NSW)
Cape Leeuwin (WA)Cobar Airport (NSW)
Cape Naturaliste (WA)Coffs Harbour (NSW)
Carnamah (WA)Collarenebri (NSW)
Carnegie (WA)Coonabarabran (NSW)
Collie East (WA)Coonabarabran Airport (NSW)
Corrigin (WA)Cowra (NSW)
Cunderdin (WA)Deniliquin (NSW)
Cygnet Bay (WA)Dunedoo (NSW)
Dalwallinu (WA)Forster (NSW)
Denham (WA)Grafton Airport (NSW)
Donnybrook (WA)Green Cape (NSW)
Eyre (WA)Grafton AgRS (NSW)
Geraldton Airport (WA)Griffith (NSW)
Giles (WA)Gulgong (NSW)
Goomalling (WA)Gundagai (NSW)
Gosnells City (WA)Guyra (NSW)
Halls Ck (WA)Hillston (NSW)
Hopetoun North (WA)Holsworthy (Defence) (NSW)
Hyden (WA)Katoomba (NSW)
Jacup (WA)Lake Cargelligo (NSW)
Jarrahwood (WA)Lake Victoria (NSW)
Jurien Bay (WA)Lightning Ridge (NSW)
Kalbarri (WA)Lismore Airport (NSW)
Kalumburu (WA)Mangrove Mountain (NSW)
Karijini North (WA)Menindee (NSW)
Karratha (WA)Merimbula (NSW)
Kellerberrin (WA)Montague Island (NSW)
Lake Grace (WA)Moruya Heads (NSW)
Lancelin (WA)Mount Seaview (NSW)
Leinster (WA)Mungindi  (NSW)
Mandora (WA)Murrurundi (NSW)
Mandurah (WA)Murwillumbah (NSW)
Manjimup (WA)Narooma (NSW)
Marble Bar (WA)Nelson Bay (NSW)
Merredin (WA)Newcastle (NSW)
Millendon (WA)Newcastle Univ. (NSW)
Morawa (WA)Norah Head (NSW)
Mount Elizabeth (WA)Nyngan (NSW)
Mount Barker (WA)Parkes (NSW)
Mullewa (WA)Peak Hill (NSW)
Munglinup West (WA)Penrith (NSW)
Murchison (WA)Perisher Valley (NSW)
Narembeen (WA)Pindari Dam (NSW)
Narrogin (WA)Pooncarrie (NSW)
Newman Aero (WA)Point Perpendicular (NSW)
Northam (WA)Quirindi (NSW)
Ongerup (WA)Scone (NSW)
Pemberton (WA)Singleton (NSW)
Perth Metro (WA)Smoky Cape (NSW)
Pingelly (WA)Springwood (NSW)
Ravensthorpe (WA)Sydney  (NSW)
Red Rocks Point (WA)Sydney Airport (NSW)
Salmon Gums RS (WA)Taralga  (NSW)
Shark Bay Airport (WA)Tenterfield (NSW)
Southern Cross (WA)Thredbo Village (NSW)
Swanbourne (WA)Tocumwal (NSW)
Telfer (WA)Tumbarumba (NSW)
Wagin (WA)Ulladulla (NSW)
Warmun (WA)Wanaaring (NSW)
Wiluna (WA)Wellington (NSW)
Witchcliffe (WA)Wilcannia Airport (NSW)
Wongan Hills (WA)Yamba (NSW)
York (WA)Yanco (NSW)
Wandering (WA)
Queensland
Alva Beach (Qld)Low Isles (Qld)
Applethorpe (Qld)Lucinda (Qld)
Ayr DPI (Qld)Mackay MO (Qld)
Barcaldine (Qld)Mareeba (Qld)
Beaudesert (Qld)Miles (Qld)
Bedourie (Qld)Mitchell (Qld)
Bollon (Qld)Mornington Is Airport (Qld)
Cape Flattery (Qld)Mount Isa  (Qld)
Cape Moreton (Qld)Mount Stuart Defence (Qld)
Camooweal (Qld)Point Lookout (Qld)
Cardwell (Qld)Rainbow Beach (Qld)
Century Mine (Qld)Redcliffe(Qld)
Charters Towers (Qld)Richmond (Qld)
Coconut Island (Qld)Rockhampton (Qld)
Collinsville (Qld)Rolleston (Qld)
Cunnamulla (Qld)Rundle Island (Qld)
Double Island Point (Qld)Sandy Cape (Qld)
Emerald (Qld)Seventeen Seventy (Qld)
Gladstone Airport (Qld)Springsure (Qld)
Gladstone Radar (Qld)Stanthorpe (Qld)
Gold Coast Seaway (Qld)South Johnstone (Qld)
Greenbank (Qld)Sunshine Coast Airport (Qld)
Gympie (Qld)Surat (Qld)
Hervey Bay (Qld)Tambo (Qld)
Ingham (Qld)Taroom (Qld)
Injune (Qld)Tewantin RSL Park (Qld)
Innisfail (Qld)Texas (Qld)
Innisfail Aero (Qld)Tin Can Bay (Qld)
Kowanyama Airport (QLD)Townsville (Qld)
Lady Elliott Island (Qld)Woolshed (Qld)
Logan City (Qld)Yeppoon (Qld)
Longreach (Qld)

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 328- Ferny Creek (Vic)

January 10, 2020

Friday 10/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Ferny Creek 86266

Opened: 2011

Daily Temperature data from: 2011

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -37.8748 145.3496

35km east of Melbourne CBD.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

Google ‘street’ view 2019 (photo Glenn Batchelor):

Drone photo:

The screen is on sloping land and is a few metres from shrubs; a 50m tall tree is about 40 metres away.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 49.25%.

That’s it: I think I’ve finished. Next I’ll update the index.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 327- Lake Grace (WA)

January 10, 2020

Friday 10/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Lake Grace 10911

Opened: 1997

Daily Temperature data from: 1997

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Esperance

Co-ordinates: -33.1006 118.4647

275km south-east of Perth

BOM site plan 2015:

Google satellite image:

Google street view 2008:

The screen is 15 metres from a bitumen road, 36 metres from a bitumen carpark, and 18 metres from the railway track. It is also close to bare dirt. Further, in 2008, either the area was watered or else the natural grass was worn away or removed to bare dirt to within a few metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 49.1%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 326- Albany Airport (WA)

January 10, 2020

Friday 10/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Albany Airport 9999

Opened: 2012

Daily Temperature data from: 2012

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -34.9411 117.8158

380km south-east of Perth

BOM site plan 2011:

Google satellite image:

This Acorn station was established here in 2012, but there have been no site plans since 2011. For a period of time until the grass grew, the enclosure was “sand”- similar to the bare areas beside the concrete path. Like many airports, it is on a raised mound of sand 60cm above the surroundings, so the screen in effect is 1.8 metres above natural ground level.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.95%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 325- Witchcliffe (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Witchcliffe 9746

Opened: 1999

Daily Temperature data from: 1999

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -34.0281 115.1042

230km south of Perth

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

This station is in the middle of a vineyard, surrounded by irrigated grape vines which are periodically pruned then grow luxuriantly to a couple of metres high. The screen will thus be shielded by the vines. See Nuriootpa.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.8%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 324- Badgingarra (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Badgingarra Research Station 9037

Opened: 1962

Daily Temperature data from: 1965

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Morawa

Co-ordinates: -30.3381 115.5394

180km north of Perth

BOM site plan 2013:

Google satellite image:

An ideal rural location? Not so. The screen is close to a tall crop in large clumps, and there is another growing crop across the road. The surrounding vegetation changes as crops grow and are harvested. As well the enclosure appears not to be well maintained grass to a few centimetres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.65%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 323- Red Rocks Point (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Red Rocks Point 11053

Opened: 1999

Daily Temperature data from: 1999

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -32.2028 127.5297

1,100km east of Perth, 1,070 west of Adelaide.

BOM site plan 2019:

Google satellite image:

The screen is on sand within a couple of metres of coastal shrubs to 2 metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.5%.