Australia’s Wacky Weather Station Comparison 4: Penrith (NSW)

After surveying 666 weather stations across Australia and finding nearly half (49.25%) are not compliant with Bureau of Meteorology siting specifications, in this series of posts I compare daily temperature data from pairs of compliant and non-compliant stations. Here’s the first in this series.

Penrith and Richmond RAAF

These stations are in western Sydney, 16km apart.

Fig. 1:  Penrith map location per Google Maps

Fig.2:  Penrith and Richmond

Penrith Lakes AWS 67113 is beside a large area of excavation and bare soil, and 200 metres from a large artificial lake.

Fig. 3:  Penrith (Google satellite image 2019)

Richmond RAAF 67105 is at an Air Force base. It is open, flat, and at least 50 meters from any concrete or tarmac.

Fig. 4:  Richmond RAAF site plan 2016

Fig. 5:  Richmond RAAF (Google satellite image 2020)

Richmond is 6 metres higher than Penrith.  Both are Automatic Weather Stations with electronic temperature probes transmitting data every minute. While there can be no observer error, as we shall see there can be instrumental error.

Richmond RAAF is an ACORN station. The Bureau says in its Station Catalogue: “The region is a major growth corridor for Sydney and there is evidence of anomalous warming of minimum temperatures in recent years.”

If we plot all daily maxima from 2010 to 2019 for Richmond against Penrith, we see that temperatures match quite closely:

Fig. 6:  Tmax at Richmond as a function of Tmax at Penrith

Richmond is on average cooler than Penrith. A time series of the 31 day centred mean of the daily difference between them shows more detail:

Fig. 7:  31 day mean daily difference Penrith minus Richmond Tmax

Values above zero mean Penrith is warmer than Richmond; below zero, Penrith is cooler.  Most summers Penrith is warmer, and winters slightly cooler, though the record appears to have breakpoints in early 2012 and early 2016, and some unusually high values.

This is a plot of mean differences by month:

Fig. 8: 31 day mean daily difference Penrith minus Richmond Tmax by month

Penrith is warmer in every month, especially in summer, though there are some cooler values in every month.

Minimum temperatures at Richmond are much cooler than Penrith:

Fig. 9:  Tmin at Richmond as a function of Tmin at Penrith

Fig. 10:  31 day mean daily difference Penrith minus Eichmond Tmin

Penrith is 2C to 2.5C warmer in cooler months and up to 0.5C warmer in summer.

Fig. 11: 31 day mean daily difference Penrith minus Richmond Tmin by month

A note on accuracy:

The centred 31 day running correlation is useful for detecting inconsistencies.

Fig. 12:  Centred  31 day running correlation between Penrith and Richmond maxima

Fig. 13:  Centred  31 day running correlation between Penrith and Richmond minima

The much poorer correlation in the summer of 2013-2014 shows in Figures 7 and 10. Here are the actual minimum temperatures recorded:

Fig. 14:  Daily minima at Penrith and Richmond Summer 2013 – 2014

It appears that the Richmond probe began malfunctioning in mid-December and failed completely in mid-January. It failed again a few months later.

In recent years, Penrith Lakes AWS 67113 has recorded generally warmer maxima than Richmond RAAF 67105 in summer and comparable or slightly cooler maxima in winters. Minima are always much warmer at Penrith. This may be due to the proximity to the large artificial lake.

In this example, siting non-compliance has a large effect on temperature.


This will be the last comparison, as it is very difficult to identify non-compliant stations with nearby compliant sites with similar environment. We can conclude however that non-compliance with siting specifications affects temperatures recorded, which varies between locations. Sometimes maxima are much warmer, sometimes minima. Temperatures at 329 non-compliant stations cannot be regarded as reliable for weather or climate analysis.

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