Posts Tagged ‘Bureau of Meteorology’

Australian Temperature- Satellites or Surface Stations?

May 13, 2022

For years we have been very sceptical about the official Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) temperature record which is based on 104 surface stations in the ACORN-SAT (Acorn) network.  In this post I look at one of the main reasons for doubting the veracity of the surface record- the increasing divergence from the satellite record.

First up I should say that the two records should not necessarily agree, because they measure two completely different things.  Surface stations measure the temperature of the air 1.2 metres above the ground and report the highest and lowest one second samples each day at 104 locations.  These are combined in a grid average to give monthly, seasonal, and annual temperatures.  Satellites measure temperatures of the atmosphere from the ground to many kilometres up, every second, over a wide area for each pass.  These are similarly combined by algorithms to calculate a monthly average for (in this case) the land area of Australia’s Temperature of the Lower Troposphere (TLT). 

They are both useful for different purposes but are not easily compared.  Because minimum surface temperatures poorly match TLT, mean surface temperature is also a poor match.  Maxima are a better match, but still not perfect.

For this post I use data from the University of Alabama (Huntsville) (UAH) which calculates anomalies from 1991 to 2020 means.  I have converted Acorn data from anomalies from 1961-1990 means, to anomalies from 1991-2020 means, to match.

Figure 1 shows monthly Acorn maxima data and UAH means from December 1978.

Figure 1: Monthly Surface Tmax and UAH data

Although surface maxima have a much larger range than TLT anomalies, they plainly follow similar trajectories.  12 month running means smooth the data and allow easier visual comparison.

Figure 2: Running 12 Month Means: Surface Tmax and UAH data

Similar, but different at several times.   Annual means show that in some years Tmax and TLT are close to identical, while in other years they have large differences.

Figure 3: Annual Means: Surface Tmax and UAH data

In 2015 I showed the reason for these differences (but not the difference in trends).  The differences between the two datasets are very largely due to variations in rainfall.  In wet years surface maxima are relatively much cooler than TLT; in dry years surface maxima are much warmer.  In Figure 4 I have calculated rainfall anomalies scaled down by a factor of 20 and inverted, to compare with the difference between Tmax and TLT.

Figure 4: Running 12 month Means: Surface Tmax minus UAH and Inverted Rainfall

The match is close.  Figure 5 shows annual values, and trend lines.

Figure 5: Annual Means: Surface Tmax minus UAH and Inverted Rainfall

While annual rain has been slightly increasing (it’s inverted, remember) the relative difference between surface temperature and atmospheric temperature has been increasing at a rate of one degree per hundred years.  That’s odd.  Figure 6 shows the relationship between the temperature difference and rainfall.

Figure 6: Annual Surface Tmax minus UAH versus Scaled Rainfall

For every extra 20mm of rainfall, the difference between surface maxima and TLT decreases by 0.85 degrees Celsius.  The trend lines in Figure 5 should be close to parallel, not diverging.

As well, as rainfall increases, Tmax should decrease, as Figure 7 shows.

Figure 7: Surface Tmax as a Product of Rain

But as we saw in Figure 3, Tmax is increasing faster than UAH.

Furthermore, as surface Tmax increases, TLT should be increasing as well, which it is, but at a slower rate.

Figure 8:  Atmospheric Temperature as a Product of Surface Tmax

Is the atmospheric temperature lagging behind surface temperature?  Figure 9 shows the last two years of monthly values.

Figure 9:  Monthly Atmospheric Temperature and Surface Tmax, January 2020-March 2022

The values are mostly synchronous, with sometimes a delay in one or the other of one month.  (Remember, we are comparing data from 104 stations scattered across the continent, with that of the atmosphere with constantly changing and circulating winds).  When the land warms, the atmosphere warms with it; when the land cools, so does the atmosphere.

Conclusion:

Tmax should not be increasing faster than atmospheric temperature.  There is no real delay in any temperature change, as the atmosphere is heated each day by the land.  Therefore it appears that there must be some fault with the maximum temperatures reported by ACORN-SAT, which appears to be warming too rapidly.

Explanation of the mechanism for rainfall moderation of surface-atmospheric temperature differences:

In wet years more moisture carried upwards condenses, releasing heat, thus warming the atmosphere, while the surface is cooled by cloud cover, evaporation, and transpiration.  In dry years much less moisture is convected, so less heat is released in the atmosphere, while the surface is hotter because of less cloud cover and less evaporation and transpiration.  Thus dry years have a greater relative difference between Tmax and TLT than wet years.

The only energy source is solar radiation heating the land surface in daylight hours, which in turn heats the atmosphere by conduction and convection.  At night as radiation to space rapidly cools the earth, convection also rapidly decreases, so maxima, not minima, are responsible for the relationship with TLT. 

A complication is that in summer (and more so in very wet La Nina years) large volumes of very moist air from the tropical seas to the north converge over northern Australia and penetrate even into southern Australia.  This warm moist air cannot heat the surface but through condensation transfers heat to the upper atmosphere- therefore the difference between surface and atmosphere is even smaller.

More Problems With Australia’s Temperature Record: Part 3

April 13, 2022

We have seen in Parts 1 and 2 that every extra year of annual data can decrease the temperature trend at a weather station by from -0.02 to -0.03℃ per decade, and that less than half (47% actually) of Australia’s weather stations used for climate analysis have data from 1910, and three of them have insufficient data to calculate trends.

Figure 1 shows a map of non-urban Acorn stations with enough data to calculate trends, at 1910.  The others I have blanked out.

Figure 1: Acorn stations with data for 1910

The network is very sparse.  To estimate a national temperature for 1910 enormous weighting must be given to the values of a few remote stations like Alice Springs, Boulia and Kalgoorlie, so we hope they got the adjustments right!  Unfortunately, in 2015 I found adjustments at Kalgoorlie and Alice Springs were very problemmatic.

The Bureau explains the process of calculating average temperatures here.

Figure 2 shows the BOM map of trends from 1910 to 2020:

Figure 2:  Australian Tmean trends 1910-2020

Note that there a few “bullseyes” which surround stations whose temperature trends are out of phase with areas around them- e.g. Boulia is warmer, Marble Bar is cooler. 

Now here is a paradox.  As the years go by and more stations have data available, the area weighting for each station will decrease, however trends at the newer stations will show increased warming compared with the older ones.  However they will also have more variability.  This will result in oddities as I shall show, and reveals something of the difficulties with the BOM methods.

 Figure 2 is a plot of mean temperature from 1970 to 2020.

Figure 2:  Australian Tmean 1970-2020

The Acorn 2 trend is now +0.23℃ per decade or +2.3℃ per 100 years- a full degree more than the trend from 1910.

Now let’s look at the trend map for 1970 to2020:

Figure 3:  Australian Tmean trends 1970-2020

Note the little “bullseye” around Victoria River Downs, the little “balloon” around Halls Creek to the south-west of VRD, and the little surge to the south-southwest of VRD of 0.05 to 0.1℃ per decade.  Note also that north-eastern Arnhem Land, with no stations, has a warmer pocket.  Figure 4 is the BOM data for VRD.

Figure 4: Annual mean temperature at Victoria River Downs

VRD opened in 1965 and has too much data missing for BOM to calculate a trend.  The area weighting algorithm still gives it a cooling trend of between minus 0.05 and 0℃ per decade (Figure 3).  Que?

With more than 27% of data missing I wouldn’t calculate a trend either, but with only six of 43 years missing I can calculate a trend from 1978:

Figure 5: Annual mean temperature at Victoria River Downs

The trend is -0.09℃ per decade, which is a bit more cooling than the trend map (Figure 3) shows.  Now let’s look at trends from 1980 to 2020.

Figure 6:  Australian Tmean trends 1980-2020

There are more bullseyes, and I have shown temperature trends for some- Carnarvon, Meekatharra, Forrest, Thargomindah, and Gayndah.  But remember Figure 3’s little surge to the SSW?   It now has its own bullseye, and that is Rabbit Flat.

Figure 7: Annual mean temperature at Rabbit Flat

Rabbit Flat opened in 1970 and has a trend of +0.08℃ per decade, which agrees with the trend map in Figure 3.  Now from 1980:

Figure 8: Annual mean temperature at Rabbit Flat

What a difference a few years make in a short timeseries.  The trend of -0.06℃ per decade also agrees with the 1980-2020 trend map.

However, just 328km away Halls Creek shows a warming trend of +0.17C per decade from 1980 – 2020:

Figure 9: Annual mean temperature at Halls Creek 1980-2020

But from 1970 to 2020 Halls Ck is warmer still at +0.19C per decade:

Figure 10: Annual mean temperature at Halls Creek 1970-2020

And at Tennant Creek 441km away the 1970-2020 trend is +0.19C per decade:

Figure 11: Annual mean temperature at Tennant Creek 1970-2020

From 1980 it is +0.06C per decade.

Figure 12: Annual mean temperature at Tennant Creek 1980-2020

Temperatures are trending in different directions and wildly different rates at the closest stations: they can’t all be right!

The method of drawing trend maps is to use anomalies of temperatures of all years of all stations whether or not an individual trend can be calculated, then calculate a gridded average, and from that calculate trends, then spread those trends hundreds of kilometres in every direction- even across the Gulf of Carpentaria from Horn Island to Arnhem Land, as seen in Figures 3 and 6- averaged with the trends propagated by other stations.  If a site has data missing, the grid is infilled with the weighted data from other sites.  

In recent decades this causes great variability because of the short records, which leads to grave doubts about the reliability of some records.  Further back in time, there is less variability because there are more stations, and the longer records smooth and decrease the trends- however the weighting has to be much greater because of the large areas with no data at all for many years. 

The problem is: we can have either a long record, or an accurate record, but not both.

This leads to the obvious conclusion:

The official temperature record since 1910 is just a guesstimate.

More Problems With Australia’s Temperature Record: Part 2

April 10, 2022

My colleague Chris Gillham at WAClimate uses 58 long term weather stations for his analyses.

And with good reason.  Here’s why.

Figure 1 is a screenshot of the annual mean temperature record at a typical Acorn station, Longreach (Qld) with the linear trend shown.

Figure 1: Annual mean temperature at Longreach

The linear trend is +0.12℃ per decade.  Nine (9) of the 111 years of data from 1910 to 2020 are missing, leaving 102 years.

Australia’s official climate record is based on 112 sites like Longreach.  Of those, 8 are not used for seasonal and annual analyses because they are affected by Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect.  Five (5) of the non-urban stations have more than 20% of their data missing, so the BOM does not calculate trends for them. Of those remaining, only 50 started in 1910, and another 8 before 1915.  What is the effect of different length records on our understanding of how temperatures have changed over the years?

Figure 2 is a plot of the trends of mean temperatures per decade as a factor of the number of years of annual temperature data on record at those 107 Acorn stations with enough data to calculate trends.

Figure 2:  Trend as a factor of amount of data

Stations with  longer data records have lower trends.  The trends at stations with shorter records vary wildly, with some obvious outliers. 

At those stations with UHI effect, the relationship is even stronger.

Figure 3:  Trend as a factor of amount of data at sites with UHI

These sites are in larger towns and cities, possibly with better maintenance and observation practices (although not necessarily better siting).

The slope of the trendlines in the above two figures show that for every additional year of data, temperature trend decreases by about -0.02 to -0.03℃ per decade. In 100 years that could make a difference of as much as three degrees Celsius 0.3C at a well maintained site.

Figure 4 is a map of trends across Australia from 1910 to 2020.  I have shown the years of available data at each site (locations only approximate) and I have circled in blue those 5 sites that have insufficient data.

 Figure 4:  Years of data contributing to 1910 to 2020 trend map

Trends in different regions vary from less than 0.1C per decade to up to 0.3C per decade.  As you can see there is a large variation in the amount of available data in each different coloured band.  That’s for 1910 to 2020.  Note that there are only three (3) non-urban stations with no missing years- Carnarvon, Esperance, and Mt Gambier- which I have circled in red.  There are some big gaps.

In Part 3 I will look at some individual stations and how trends vary in the 51 years from 1970 to 2020.

More Problems With Australia’s Temperature Record: Part 1

April 8, 2022

Since 2010 I have been documenting problems with different versions of Australia’s official temperature record as produced by the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM).  Since the High Quality (HQ) dataset was quietly withdrawn in 2012 we have seen regularly updated versions of the Australian Climate Observation Reference Network- Surface Air Temperature (ACORN-SAT or Acorn).  We are now up to Version 2.2.  In this Part I shall show the effect of these changes on temperature trends.  In Part 2 I will show how record length affects trends, and in Part 3 I will look at the record since 1970 at some individual stations.

Figure 1 is from the BOM Climate Change Time Series page.

Figure 1:  Australian Official Temperature Record 1910 to 2021

The linear trend is shown as +0.13℃ per decade, or 1.3C per 100 years.  My colleague Chris Gillham of WAClimate has provided me with archived Acorn 1 annual mean temperature data to 2013 which allows this comparison:

Figure 2:  TMean: Acorn 1 and Acorn 2

The result of introducing Acorn 2 has been a much steeper trend:  Acorn 1 trend to 2013 was 0.9℃ per decade.  The trend has now become 0.13℃ per decade. (The extra 9 years have added an extra 0.017C per decade to the trend.)

Figure 3 shows when and how large the changes were:

Figure 3:  Difference between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2

Acorn2 is cooler than Acorn 1 before 1971 and warmer in all but three years since.  Since these were based on the same raw temperatures (with some small additions of digitised data and a couple of changes to stations) the changes were brought about entirely by adjustments to the data.

I calculated running trends from every year to 2013 for both datasets.  As trends shorter than 30 years become less reliable I truncated the running trends at 1984.  Figure 4 compares thre trends to 2013 of Acorn 1 and Acorn 2.

Figure 4:  Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 running trends per decade to 2013

The weather fluctuations of the mid-1970s to 1980s played havoc with trends.

Figure 5 shows the difference between the trends.

Figure 5:  Difference between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 Trends

The difference ranges from +0.024C per decade for 1910 to 2013, to +0.039C for 1950 to 2013.  Having increased warming by from 0.25C to 0.4C per 100 years (just by making different adjustments) Acorn 2’s trend is much more alarming than Acorn 1’s.

Conclusion:

This is from the BOM’s explanation for Acorn:  

“A panel of world-leading experts convened in Melbourne in 2011 to review the methods used in developing the dataset. It ranked the Bureau’s procedures and data analysis as amongst the best in the world. ‘The Panel is convinced that, as the world’s first national-scale homogenised dataset of daily temperatures, the ACORNSAT dataset will be of great national and international value. We encourage the Bureau to consider the dataset an important long-term national asset.’” ACORN-SAT International Peer Review Panel Report, 2011.

 Acorn 1.0 was apparently such an important long-term asset that it was quickly superseded by Acorn 2 with a much more alarming trend.

Diurnal Temperature Range and the Australian Temperature Record: More Evidence

January 19, 2022

In an earlier post, I demonstrated through analysing Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) that the Bureau of Meteorology is either incompetent or has knowingly allowed inaccurate data to garble the record.

A couple of readers suggested avenues for deeper analysis. 

Siliggy asked, “Is the exaggerated difference now caused by the deletion of old hot maximums and or whole old long warmer records?”

Graeme No. 3 asked, “Is there any way of extracting seasonal figures from this composition?”

This post seeks to answer both, and the short answer is “Yes”.

Using BOM Time Series data (from the thoroughly adjusted Acorn dataset) I have looked at data for Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter (although those seasons lose their meaning the further north you go).

DTR is very much governed by rainfall differences as shown by this plot.

Figure 1:  Winter DTR anomalies plotted against rainfall anomalies- all years 1910-2020

This shows that in winter DTR decreases with increasing rainfall.  The R squared value of 0.79 means that for the whole period, rainfall explained DTR 79% of the time on average.  However, the average conceals the long term changes in the relationship.

To show this, I simply calculated running 10 year correlations between DTR and Rainfall anomalies for each season, and squared these to show the “R squared” value.  This is a good rule of thumb indicator for how well DTR matches rainfall over 10 year periods.  A value of 0.5 indicates only half of the DTR for that decade can be explained by rainfall alone.  As you will see in the following figures, there are plenty of 10 year periods when the relationship was 0.9 or better, meaning it is ideally possible for 90% of DTR variation to be explained by rainfall.  Here are the results.

Figure 2:  Spring Running R-squared values: DTR vs Rain

There was a good relationship before 1930.  In the decades from then to the mid-1970s it was much worse, and very poor in the decade to 1946. It was poor again in the decade to 2001, and the 10 years to 2020 shows another smaller dip, showing something not quite right with 2020.

Figure 3: Summer Running R-squared values: DTR vs Rain

Summer values were very poor before the 1960s, especially the decades to 1944 and 1961, and dipped again in the 1990s.

Figure 4:  Autumn Running R-squared values: DTR vs Rain

The DTR/Rain relationship was very poor in the decades to 1928, and again before 2001.  The recent decade has also been poor- less than half of DTR to 2020 can be explained by rainfall.

Figure 5:  Winter Running R-squared values: DTR vs Rain

The DTR/rainfall relationship was fairly good, apart from two short episodes, until the 1990s.

I now turn to the northern half of the continent.

A large area of Northern Australia is dominated by just two seasons, wet and dry.  Here is the plot of northern DTR vs Rain for the wet season (October to April).

Figure 6:  Northern Australia Wet Season Running R-squared values: DTR vs Rain

Apart from the 1950s, the late 1970s-early 1980s, and 1998 to 2020, the DTR : Rainfall relationship is very poor, with a long period in the 1930s and 1940s in which rainfall explains less than half of DTR variation (only 13% in the decade to 1943). 

Because the northern half of Australia accounts for the bulk of Australian rainfall, and the wet season is from October to April, this perhaps explains the problems in spring, summer, and autumn for the whole country.

We can get some clues as to the reasons by comparing long term average maximum temperatures with inverted rain (as wet years are cool and dry years are warm).

Figure 7:  Northern Australia Wet Season Decadal Maxima and Rain

The divergence before 1972 and after 2001 is obvious.

The above plots show how poorly DTR (and therefore temperature, from which it is derived) has matched rainfall over the past 111 years.  Low correlations indicate something other than rainfall was influencing temperatures.

In reply to Siliggy, who asked “Is the exaggerated difference now caused by the deletion of old hot maximums and or whole old long warmer records?” the answer appears to be: both, however Figure 7 shows old temperatures (before 1972) appear incorrect, but recent temperatures are at fault too.

The mismatch shows that the Acorn temperature record is not to be trusted as an indicator of past temperatures- and even recent ones.

More Evidence That The Australian Temperature Record Is Complete Garbage

December 8, 2021

The Bureau of Meteorology is either incompetent or has knowingly allowed inaccurate data to garble the record.

My colleague Chris Gillham at http://www.waclimate.net/ has alerted me to growing problems with the BOM’s record for Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR).  DTR is the difference between daytime temperature (Tmax) and night-time temperature (Tmin). 

According to Dr Karl Braganza’s paper at https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2004GL019998 , “an index of climate change” is that DTR should decrease as greenhouse gases accumulate. To oversimplify, greenhouse gases will enhance daytime temperature while at night greenhouse gases will slow down cooling.  With increasing greenhouse gas concentration, daytime maxima are expected to increase, certainly, but the effect on night-time minima will be relatively greater.  Thus, minimum temperatures will increase faster than maxima, and DTR will decrease.  While Dr Braganza was referring to global values, Australia is a large dry continent where DTR should show up clearly.

We now have 111 years of temperature data in ACORN-SAT (Australian Climate Observation Reporting Network- Surface Air Temperatures).  In this post I only use Acorn temperature data and corresponding rainfall data.  Skeptics have been bagging Acorn ever since it was introduced, and for good reasons as you will see.

Figure 1 is straight from the Bureau’s climate time series page, and shows how DTR has varied over the years.  There is a centred 15 year running mean overlaid. 

Figure 1: Official plot of annual DTR

Melbourne, We Have A Problem… DTR has been increasing recently.

I have used BOM data to make plots that show this more clearly.  First, Figure 2 shows annual DTR from 1910 to 2020 has no trend.  It should be decreasing.

Figure 2:  Annual DTR

There appears to be a distinct step up around 2000-2002.

Figure 3 shows the same data for the last 70 years, broken into two periods, from 1951 to 2000, and 2001 to 2020.

Figure 3:  DTR since 1951

From 1951 to 2000, DTR behaves as it should, with a long term decrease.  After 2000, DTR steps up well above expected values.  The average from 1981-2000 is -0.12 C.  From 2001-2020 the average is +0.35C.  DTR suddenly increases by nearly 0.5C. Why?

DTR is very much governed by that other greenhouse gas, H2O.  Dry days, months and years produce hot days and cooler nights; wet periods result in cooler than average days and warmer than average nights.  This relationship is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4:  DTR anomalies plotted against rainfall anomalies- all years 1910-2020

As rainfall increases, DTR decreases.  The effect is more marked in very wet (>100mm above average) and very dry (100mm or more below average) years.

Figure 5 shows time series of DTR (as in Figure 2) and rainfall.  Rainfall has been inverted and scaled down by a factor of 250.

Figure 5:  DTR and Inverted, Scaled Rainfall

There is close match between the two.

Using 10 year averages in Figure 6 makes the change after 2001 much clearer.

Figure 6:  Decadal means of DTR and inverted, scaled rainfall

The 10 year average rainfall to 2020 is about the same as the 1961-1990 average (the period the BOM uses for calculating anomalies).  The 10 year average DTR should be about the same value- not at a record level.

As DTR decrease due to greenhouse gas accumulation is caused by minimum temperatures increasing faster than maximum temperatures, Figure 7 shows 10 year averages of maxima and minima for all years to 2020.

Figure 7:  10 year running means of Tmax and Tmin

Tmax has clearly accelerated in the last 20 years, increasing much faster than Tmin.

This is NOT what should be happening: indeed it is the exact opposite of what greenhouse theory predicts.

Something happened to Australian maximum temperature recording or reporting early this century.  I suspect that the BOM changed from using the highest one-minute average of temperatures recorded in Automatic Weather Systems to the current highest one-second value for the day becoming the reported maximum; or else the design of a significant number of AWS changed, with new, faster-responding probes replacing old ones.

I also suspect I know why this was allowed to happen and continue.

Warmer minimum temperatures at night and in winter are not very scary, but record high temperatures and heatwaves make headlines.

It would suit the Global Warming Enthusiasts in the Bureau for apparently rapidly rising maxima and ever higher records being broken to make headlines, frighten the public, put pressure on governments, and generally support The Narrative.

But someone forgot to tell the left hand what the right hand was doing.

The result is that they are now faced with a contradiction- Diurnal Temperature Range is not decreasing as it should. 

The Bureau is either incompetent or has knowingly allowed inaccurate data to garble the record.

ACORN-SAT 2.0: Nation-wide Summary

May 20, 2019

This is the eighth in a series of posts in which I directly compare the most recent version of Australia’s temperature record, ACORN-SAT 2, with that of the previous version, ACORN-SAT 1.  Results for the whole network are summarised below.

Introduction:

The Bureau of Meteorology has released its latest revision of the Australian temperature record back to 1910.  Previous versions of our historic temperatures included “High Quality”, which I revealed in 2010 to have major flaws, not least being the strong warming bias; and ACORN-SAT 1, released in March 2012, proudly touted as being “World’s Best Practice”, which I (along with others) found to have very many severe problems.  (If you like, check these posts, hereherehere, and here.  There are many others.)

Stung by the public and media criticism which this generated, the Bureau set up a supposedly independent Technical Advisory Forum, which met on one day per year for three years and basically rubber-stamped Acorn.  They did, however, make some recommendations, particularly about transparency.  In the light of this recommendation, this latest release without any publicity at all is perplexing.

Nearly all of Australia’s climate analysis and modelling is based on the previous version, Acorn 1, including monthly, seasonal, and annual means, extremes, and trends.  Sometime in the near future, this will be based on Acorn 2 data.

As this an upgrade to an existing dataset, we might expect there would be a few small tweaks of maybe a few tenths of a degree in some records and any changes to temperature trends would be fairly small.  Perhaps there might be some extra stations in remote areas to improve the density of the sparse network, perhaps some records starting earlier because of newly digitized data, hopefully a sensible fix for the dreadful situation of many daily minimum temperatures being higher than the maximum.

Not so.

No wonder the Bureau has released Acorn 2 so quietly- it is a confusing mess, and completely alters Acorn 1.  Trends are vastly different, some temperatures altered by more than 10 degrees Celsius, and new records established.

The basis for the new version is in the Research Report.  The Bureau has published a new station catalogue with more detailed information, the adjustment summary for each station, plus lists of comparative stations for adjustments and all comparison stations for each site, with explanations of adjustment terminology.  Well worth a look.

It is important to highlight this paragraph on the new ACORN-SAT home page:

The purpose of updating datasets like ACORN-SAT is principally to incorporate data that has been recorded since the last analysis was released, as well as historical paper records that have been recently digitised. ACORN-SAT version 2 also incorporates the findings and recommendations of the Technical Advisory Forum, applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies. The overall aim of the update to ACORN-SAT is to provide improved estimates of historical changes in climate.

As well, in the ACORN-SAT FAQs, the Bureau says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

Therefore, the Bureau has set their own criterion for whether Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are at all useful and valuable.  To repeat:

“whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

Daily data were directly downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology for maxima and minima for each of the 112 stations.

The Context

Figure 1:  Australian ACORN-SAT stations

Oz map all

There are 112 Acorn stations in the BOM database.  Differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are summarized in the following sections.

Largest temperature differences between Version 1 and Version 2

All temperatures are shown in degrees Celsius.

The five stations with the largest increases to daily maxima were:

Orbost (Victoria) 14.60
Wandering (W.A.) 10.90
Alice Springs  (N.T.) 10.10
Port Lincoln  (S.A.) 9.70
Scone  (N.S.W.) 8.30

The five stations with the largest decreases in daily maxima were:

Wandering  (W.A) -10.90
Cabramurra  (N.S.W.) -9.60
Esperance  (W.A.) -9.40
Alice Springs  (N.T.) -9.20
Wyalong  (N.S.W.) -8.60

Gunnedah (NSW) was the only station that had no changes made to the Version 1 values for maxima.

The five stations with the largest increases to daily minima were:

Merredin  (W.A.) 14.40
Butlers Gorge  (Tas.) 11.30
Alice Springs  (N.T.) 11.00
Scone  (N.S.W.) 9.60
Snowtown   (S.A.) 9.10

Horn Island (Qld) was the only station with no increases to daily minima.

The five stations with the largest decreases in daily minima were:

Wagga Wagga (N.S.W.) -13.40
Merredin  (W.A.) -12.60
Alice Springs  (N.T.) -11.50
Esperance  (W.A.) -10.80
Butlers Gorge  (Tas.) -9.70

Adjustments made to daily data were mostly of the order of +/- 1 or 2 ℃.  However the figures in the above tables show how enormous some adjustments were at many stations- including a range of 27 ℃ in adjustments to minima at Merredin!  That must surely rank as “wildly different results”.

New temperature extremes:

New records were set.

In Acorn 2 40 stations had increased record high maxima, 35 had their record highs decreased, and the remaining 37 were unchanged.  In minima, there were 36 stations whose lowest temperatures were increased, and 66 had new record lows. 10 were unchanged.

The old Australian record for highest maximum in Acorn Version 1 was (improbably) 51.2 ℃ at Albany in the far south of Western Australia.  In version 2, that has been reduced to 49.5 ℃.  The Version 2 highest maximum is now 51.1 ℃ at Oodnadatta in the South Australian desert.

The lowest temperature in Version 1 was -12.7 ℃ at Butlers Gorge in Tasmania.  That has been surpassed in version 2 by Inverell in northern inland New South Wales with -13 ℃.  (In raw data, the lowest at Inverell was -10.6 ℃ in July 1882.)

Here are the five stations with highest daily maximum temperatures.

Oodnadatta 51.10
Carnarvon 51.00
Forrest 50.10
Marble Bar 49.80
Port Hedland 49.7

Coldest minima:

Inverell -13.00
Butlers Gorge -12.70
Bathurst -11.50
Canberra -11.50
Cabramurra -10.70

Warmest minima stations are all coastal or islands:

Cape Moreton 5.10
Cairns 6.00
Weipa 9.10
Darwin 10.50
Horn Island 15.00

In Acorn version 2 there are some other peculiarities:  the “improved estimate” of climate change in Australia shows that Nhill, in western Victoria, has probably never had a frost, as its coldest morning has only been 2.7 ℃, the same as Sydney and Tennant Creek.   Alice Springs has the 69th hottest temperature at 45 ℃: far cooler than Albany, Eucla, Ceduna, or Port Lincoln far to the south.

Changes to temperature trends

With such enormous changes made to the daily data at so many stations, there have also been some major changes to temperature trends, both at individual stations and across the whole network.  (Trends are shown as degrees Celsius per 100 years).

Highest trends in maxima in Acorn 1

Cabramurra 4.75
Birdsville 3.21
Wyalong 3.00
Cunderdin 2.97
Cape Borda 2.90

Highest trends in maxima in Acorn 2

Wyalong 3.78
Cabramurra 3.66
Cunderdin 2.96
Birdsville 2.82
Ceduna 2.78

A trend of +4.75 ℃ per 100 years at Cabramurra high in the mountains is astounding- and the trend has been decreased by over one whole degree in Acorn 2.  The top four warming stations are the same in both datasets, but Cape Borda has been replaced by Ceduna in Acorn 2.  (Cape Borda went from 5th fastest warming to 15th; Ceduna went from 22nd to 5th.)

Highest trends in minima in Acorn 1

Rockhampton 3.10
Barcaldine 3.03
Laverton RAAF 3.03
Moree 3.01
Townsville 2.96

Highest trends in minima in Acorn 2

Rockhampton 3.41
Camooweal 3.27
Coffs Harbour 3.17
Horn Island 2.90
Laverton RAAF 2.81

Rockhampton maintains top position as fastest warming, and is warming even more in Acorn 2.  Laverton RAAF slips from third to fifth, while the other three places are completely changed.  Barcaldine slips from second fastest warming to 49th, replaced by Camooweal which rises from 41st!  Coffs Harbour has risen from 46th to third, but the gong for “most improved” must go to Horn Island, rising to +2.9 ℃ per 100 years in fourth place from +1.03 ℃ per 100 years in 72nd place,.    Those are definitelywildly different results”.

Greatest warming change in trends in maxima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2

Eucla 1.50
Wittenoom 1.43
Giles 1.10
Ceduna 1.05
Port Macquarie 0.98

It seems that the improved methods used to create Acorn 2 has changed Eucla’s record to the extent thata reasonable guide to what has actually occurred” means an increase of +1.5 ℃ per 100 years in the rate of warming- an increase of 557%.

Greatest warming change in trends in minima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2

Horn Island 1.87
Scone 1.86
Camooweal 1.71
Coffs Harbour 1.70
Tarcoola 1.51

The same applies to minima, with Horn Island’s warming trend increasing from +1.03 ℃ to +2.9 ℃ per 100 years.  Five stations had warming trends increase by more than 1.5 ℃, and 14 increased by more than 1.0 ℃ per 100 years.

Greatest cooling change in trends in maxima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2

Victoria River Downs -1.07
Sale -1.07
Cabramurra -1.08
Moree -1.29
Rabbit Flat -1.64

The changes were not all in the same direction.  Rabbit Flat’s very patchy record takes the gong for the greatest cooling change in trend.  Rabbit Flat went from 24th fastest warming (+1.69 ℃ per 100 years) in Acorn 1 to 110th (third last) in Acorn 2- at +0.05 ℃ per 100 years.

Greatest cooling change in trends in minima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2

Moree -0.89
Rabbit Flat -0.94
Halls Creek -1.32
Barcaldine -1.42
Giles -1.55

Again there were some big movers.  Rabbit Flat and Moree were again in the top five for most cooling change.  Giles had a similar fall from grace to record the greatest change: from 71st fastest warming (+1.03 ℃ per 100 years in Acorn 1) to second last place in Acorn 2 at -0.52 ℃, but Barcaldine went from second fastest warming to 49th, and Halls Creek from 58th fastest to 110th.

National Trends

In order to aggregate data into a national mean, all stations’ data were converted to anomalies calculated from their 1981 -2010 means.  There are 112 Acorn stations, but the Bureau insists that Urban Heat Island (UHI) warming makes eight of them (Townsville, Rockhampton, Sydney, Richmond RAAF (NSW), Melbourne, Laverton RAAF (Vic), Adelaide and Hobart) unsuitable for regional and national analysis.  The next plots show the change in trend from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2: first in maxima.

Figure 2: National mean of maxima at all stations

Acorn trends tmax all

Acorn 2 produces an increase in trend from +0.88 ℃ to + 0.99 ℃ per 100 years- an increase of 12.5%.

Figure 3: National mean of maxima at 104 stations, excluding those with UHI effect

 Acorn trends tmax nonUHI

Excluding eight UHI warmed stations produces virtually no difference from the trend of all 112 stations: +0.88 to +1.00 ℃.

Figure 2: National mean of minima at all stations

Acorn trends tmin all

In minima, the trend increases from +1.16 ℃ to +1.35 ℃ per 100 years- an increase of 16.4%.

Figure 3: National mean of minima at 104 stations, excluding those with UHI effect

 Acorn trends tmin nonUHI

Again, exclusion of UHI warming stations has a small effect, with the trend for non-UHI stations increasing from +1.15 ℃ in Acorn 1 to +1.37 ℃ per 100 years in Acorn 2.  That’s an increase of 19.1%.

Conclusion:

There are no additional stations, but additional digitised data at several stations has a large impact on annual trends.  As well, several Acorn 1 stations closed and their data merged with data from new sites in Acorn 2.

Large differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 daily data of many degrees Celsius are found at many stations.  The largest changes ranged from -10.9 ℃ to +14.6 ℃ in maxima and -13.4 ℃ to +14.4 ℃ in minima.  Interestingly, no changes were made to Version 1 in Gunnedah maxima, and to Horn Island in minima.

New record maxima were established at 40 stations, with the remaining stations’ records being reduced or unchanged.  Australia’s “new” record high temperature is 51.1 ℃ at Oodnadatta.  The largest increase was of +2.5 ℃ at Carnarvon.  Our “new” record low temperature is -13 ℃ at Inverell.  The largest decrease in record low is -2.7 ℃ at Alice Springs.

Trends at individual stations in maxima and minima have often seen spectacular changes: changes in trend over Acorn 1 of from -1.64 ℃ to +1.87 ℃ per 100 years.  These changes resulted in very large changes in relative placing of fastest warming or cooling.  Eucla’s trend in maxima was increased more than six and a half times: 557%.  Broome’s minima trend increased more than five and a half times: 461%.

The size of the adjustments only seven years after the “world’s best practice” dataset was launched, is incredible.  The explanation that Acorn Version 2 “applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies”, is beyond belief, as most datasets are vastly different from Acorn Version 1.  This is not incremental improvement.

In the ACORN-SAT FAQs, in the answer to:

“Why should the adjustments change, weren’t they correct the first time?”

the Bureau says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

By their own words they have condemned themselves- “wildly different results” is exactly what has been produced.  Adjustments made in Version 1 were apparently made in error as they have been “corrected” by adjustments in version 2.  Will these adjustments be in error and corrected in version 3?

The Bureau officers responsible for Acorn version 2 appear to be blissfully unaware that they have made adjustments of up to 14.6 ℃ to temperatures in the dataset they proudly claimed to be world’s best practice just seven years ago.

Acorn 2, as the best estimate of Australia’s temperature record, is a failure.

ACORN-SAT 2.0: New South Wales- What a mess

April 10, 2019

This is the seventh in a series of posts in which I directly compare the most recent version of Australia’s temperature record, ACORN-SAT 2, with that of the previous version, ACORN-SAT 1.  Daily data are directly downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology. I do not analyse against raw data (available at Climate Data Online), except for particular examples, as I am interested in how different Acorn 2 is from Acorn 1.  The basis for the new version is in the Research Report.  The Bureau has published a new station catalogue with more detailed information, the adjustment summary for each station, plus lists of comparative stations for adjustments and all comparison stations for each site, with explanations of adjustment terminology.  Well worth a look.

See my previous posts for Western Australia, the Northern TerritoryQueensland,  South Australia, Tasmania, and Victoria for a general introduction.  It is important to highlight this paragraph on the new ACORN-SAT home page:

The purpose of updating datasets like ACORN-SAT is principally to incorporate data that has been recorded since the last analysis was released, as well as historical paper records that have been recently digitised. ACORN-SAT version 2 also incorporates the findings and recommendations of the Technical Advisory Forum, applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies. The overall aim of the update to ACORN-SAT is to provide improved estimates of historical changes in climate.

As well, in the ACORN-SAT FAQs, the Bureau says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

Therefore, the Bureau has set their own criterion for whether Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are at all useful and valuable.  To repeat:

“whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

The Context – New South Wales

Figure 1 is a map of Australia showing all of the Bureau’s ACORN-SAT climate monitoring stations.  New South Wales is the oldest and most populous state with climates varying from semi-desert to montaine.

Figure 1:  Australian ACORN-SAT stations

NSW map all

There are 25 Acorn stations in the NSW BOM database.  Differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are summarized in the following sections.

Additional data

An extra 27 years of data have been digitised for Canberra, and 45 years for Moree, which has had an enormous effect on annual temperature trends (see below).  Some locations had changes to new sites, with Acorn 1 data merged to Acorn 2 data, including Tibooburra and Wilcannia.

Largest temperature differences

In maxima, changes to Acorn 1 daily data ranged from +8.3 ℃ at Scone in 1996 to -9.6 ℃ at Cabramurra in 1998 applied to individual daily figures.

Remarkably, there were NO changes from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Gunnedah.

Figure 2:  Daily changes in maxima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Cabramurra

Cabramurra max adj

Minima adjustments ranged from -13.4 ℃ at Wagga Wagga in 1946 to +9.6 ℃ at Scone in 1996 on individual days but with many days adjusted by -2 ℃ or greater.

Figure 3:  Daily changes in minima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Wagga Wagga:

Wagga min diffs

(Remember, these are adjustments to Acorn 1, which was supposed to be “world’s best practice” seven years ago.  How did the Bureau get it so wrong the first time?  Has world’s best practice changed so much in seven years?)

Record temperatures

New record maxima were established at nine stations, with the highest at Bourke (48.9 ℃) while other stations’ record highs were unchanged or reduced.  There were two notable changes.  Figure 4 shows maxima at Sydney in 1939, where the record was increased by 2.5 ℃ to 47.9 ℃.

Figure 4:  Three versions of maxima at Sydney in 1939

Sydney record max

(The temperature was below 20 ℃ on 16th and 17th.)

Figure 5 shows Port Macquarie, whose record maximum was reduced by -4.1 ℃ from 48.1 ℃ to 44 ℃ in 1944.

Figure 5:  Two versions of maxima at Port Macquarie in 1944

PtMcquarie record max

There is NO daily raw data for any Port Macquarie site from 1921 to 1956 at Climate Data Online, so there is no way of replicating these adjustments.

Such “wildly different results” are beyond rational explanation.

New record low temperatures were established at 15 stations, and a new record low for Acorn stations was set, not at Cabramurra in the Snowy Mountains, but at Inverell in the north: -13 ℃.  Canberra’s minimum was reduced by 2.9 ℃ to -11.5 ℃.

Figure 6:  Three versions of minima at Inverell

Inverell record min

Raw minimum of -10 ℃ is cold enough.  Acorn version 1 had cooled this further by 1.4 ℃, but version 2 cools version 1 by another 1.6 ℃, making it three degrees cooler than the raw figure.  Strange things happen in the past!

Quality Control: especially minimum temperatures higher than maximum.

In Acorn 1, 15 out of the 25 stations had at least one example of minimum higher than maximum- including 12 times at Bourke and Sydney, 15 at Tibooburra, and 212 times at Cabramurra.  The worst example was minimum 2.2 ℃ above maximum in October 1913 at Tibooburra.  Blair Trewin claims he has “fixed” this problem (which he concedes was “physically unrealistic”) by adjusting temperatures in Acorn 2 so that the maximum and minimum are the same, so that DTR for the day is zero.  In his words:

A procedure was therefore adopted under which, if a day had a negative diurnal range in the adjusted data, the maximum and minimum temperatures were each corrected to the mean of the original adjusted maximum and adjusted minimum, creating no change in the daily mean.

That is almost how he “corrected” the worst NSW example in Acorn 1 (minimum 2.2 ℃ above maximum at Tibooburra).  Here is a plot of the raw data and changes made by Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 at Tibooburra in 1913.

Figure 7:  Tibooburra temperatures October-November 1913

Tibooburra DTR 1913

Acorn 1 maxima (orange line) were reduced too far below Raw (brown). Acorn 1 minima (grey) were too far above raw minima (light blue).  Result: garbage. Acorn 2 has changed maxima (dark red) back to 0.1 ℃ below the raw value, and reduced minima (dark blue) from 17 ℃ to 16 ℃.  This is not the “mean of the original adjusted maximum and adjusted minimum”- but at least the DTR is not negative.

The problem was caused by far too large adjustments to both maxima and minima, and was fixed by more arbitrary adjustments.

Not all Acorn 2 adjustments resulted in an increase in warming- in several, the warming trend was reduced.  For example, Figure 8 shows annual temperature trends at Sydney.

Figure 8:  Maxima Trends in Sydney 1910-2017

Sydney max ann trends

The warming rate of +1 ℃ per 100 years in Acorn 1 has been reduced to +0.79 ℃ in Acorn 2.

However, at Coffs Harbour the warming trend in minima was more than doubled, from +1.47 ℃ to +3.17 ℃ per 100 years.

Figure 9:  Minima trends at Coffs Harbour 1952-2017

CoffsHbr min ann trends

Figure 10 shows the effect of including an extra 27 years of data on annual trends at Canberra, with Acorn 1 adjusted downwards from 2011.

Figure 10:  Trends in Canberra minima 1914-2017

Canberra min ann trends

Acorn 1 starts in 1940.  Canberra’s warming trend has been increased from +1.48 ℃ to +2.18 ℃ per 100 years.

Conclusion:

There are no additional stations, but additional digitised data at several stations has a large impact on annual trends.  As well, several Acorn 1 stations closed and their data merged with data from new sites in Acorn 2.

Large differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 daily data of many degrees Celsius are found at several stations.  Interestingly, no changes were made to Version 1 in Gunnedah maxima, and only a few in minima.

New record maxima were established at nine stations, with the remaining stations’ records being reduced or unchanged.  The largest increase was of +2.5 ℃ at Sydney, and the largest decrease was at Port Macquarie where the record high was reduced by -4.1 ℃.

The issue of instances of minima being higher than maxima caused by too vigorous adjustments at 15 stations (including 12 times at Bourke and Sydney, 15 at Tibooburra, and 212 times at Cabramurra) has been “fixed”- only seven years after the problem was pointed out.

Not all Acorn 2 adjustments resulted in an increase in warming- in several, the warming trend was reduced.  However, excessive adjustments have resulted in Coffs Harbour’s Acorn 1 minima trend of +1.47 ℃ per 100 years being more than doubled to +3.17 ℃ in Acorn 2.

The size of the adjustments only seven years after the “world’s best practice” dataset was launched, is incredible, and demands explanation.  The explanation that Acorn Version 2 “applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies”, is beyond belief, as most datasets so far examined are vastly different from Acorn Version 1.  This is not incremental improvement.

In the ACORN-SAT FAQs, in the answer to:

“Why should the adjustments change, weren’t they correct the first time?”

the Bureau says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

By their own words they have condemned themselves- “wildly different results” is exactly what has been produced.  Adjustments made in Version 1 were apparently made in error as they have been “corrected” by adjustments in version 2.  Will these adjustments be in error and corrected in version 3?

The Bureau officers responsible for Acorn version 2 appear to be blissfully unaware that they have made adjustments of up to 13.4 ℃ to temperatures in the dataset they proudly claimed to be world’s best practice just seven years ago.

What a mess.

I will next show a summary of Version 2 changes across the whole network, and then look at annual trends at all stations.

ACORN-SAT 2.0: Victoria- A comedy of errors

April 5, 2019

This is the sixth in a series of posts in which I directly compare the most recent version of Australia’s temperature record, ACORN-SAT 2, with that of the previous version, ACORN-SAT 1.  Daily data are directly downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology. I do not analyse against raw data (available at Climate Data Online), except for particular examples, as I am interested in how different Acorn 2 is from Acorn 1.  The basis for the new version is in the Research Report.  The Bureau has published a new station catalogue with more detailed information, the adjustment summary for each station, plus lists of comparative stations for adjustments and all comparison stations for each site, with explanations of adjustment terminology.  Well worth a look.

See my previous posts for Western Australia, the Northern TerritoryQueensland,  South Australia, and Tasmania for a general introduction.  It is important to highlight this paragraph on the new ACORN-SAT home page:

The purpose of updating datasets like ACORN-SAT is principally to incorporate data that has been recorded since the last analysis was released, as well as historical paper records that have been recently digitised. ACORN-SAT version 2 also incorporates the findings and recommendations of the Technical Advisory Forum, applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies. The overall aim of the update to ACORN-SAT is to provide improved estimates of historical changes in climate.

As well, in the ACORN-SAT FAQs, the Bureau says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

Therefore, the Bureau has set their own criterion for whether Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are at all useful and valuable.  To repeat:

“whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

The Context – Victoria

Figure 1 is a map of Australia showing all of the Bureau’s ACORN-SAT climate monitoring stations.  Victoria is a small state with climates varying from semi-desert to montaine.

Figure 1:  Australian ACORN-SAT stations

Vic map

There are eleven Acorn stations in the Victorian BOM database.  Differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are summarized in the following sections.

Additional data

An extra 36 years of data have been digitised for Sale, which has had an enormous effect on annual temperature trends (see below).  Melbourne Regional Office observations ceased on 6 January 2015, but Acorn 2 continues the series with Olympic Park, with an overlap of 19 months.

Largest temperature differences

In maxima, changes to Acorn 1 daily data ranged from +14.6 ℃ at Orbost in 2012 to -4.4 ℃ at Sale in 2013 applied to individual daily figures.

Figure 2:  Daily changes in maxima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Orbost

Orbost max adj

Minima adjustments ranged from -7.4 ℃ at Orbost to +6.2 ℃ at Rutherglen in 1926 on individual days but with many days adjusted by -2℃ or greater.   Most changes were small but numerous, for example at Rutherglen where the changes to Acorn 1 ranged between -1 ℃ and +2 ℃ for many years.

Figure 3:  Daily changes in minima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Rutherglen:

Rutherglen min diffs

(Remember, these are adjustments to Acorn 1, which was supposed to be “world’s best practice” seven years ago.  How did the Bureau get it so wrong the first time?  Has world’s best practice changed so much in seven years?)

Record temperatures

New record maxima were established at Cape Otway, Gabo Island, and Mildura, while other stations’ record highs were unchanged or reduced.

Figure 4:  Three versions of maxima at Mildura in 1960

Mildura record max

That eclipses Mildura’s record in raw temperatures of 46.9 ℃.

New record low temperatures were established at Cape Otway, Laverton, Melbourne R.O., Nhill, Rutherglen, and Wilson’s Promontory.  Melbourne’s minima was reduced by 1.1 ℃ to -1.5 ℃.

Figure 5:  Three versions of minima at Melbourne Regional Office

Melbourne record min

Acorn version 1 had warmed the minima by 0.5 ℃, but version 2 cools version 1 by 1.2 ℃, making it 0.7 ℃ cooler than the raw figure.  Strange things happen in the past!

Quality Control: especially minimum temperatures higher than maximum.

In Acorn 1, eight out of the eleven stations had at least one example of minimum higher than maximum- including 48 times at Orbost, 63 at Cape Otway, and 79 times at Wilson’s Promontory.  The worst example was minimum 1.8 ℃ above maximum in February 1946 at Orbost.  Blair Trewin claims he has “fixed” this problem (which he concedes was “physically unrealistic”) by adjusting temperatures in Acorn 2 so that the maximum and minimum are the same, so that DTR for the day is zero.  In his words:

A procedure was therefore adopted under which, if a day had a negative diurnal range in the adjusted data, the maximum and minimum temperatures were each corrected to the mean of the original adjusted maximum and adjusted minimum, creating no change in the daily mean.

That is not how he “corrected” the worst Victoria example in Acorn 1 (minimum 1.8 ℃ above maximum at Orbost).  Here is a plot of the raw data and changes made by Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 at Orbost in 1946.

Figure 6:  Orbost temperatures January – February 1946

Orbost DTR

Acorn 1 maxima (orange line) were reduced below Raw (brown). Acorn 1 minima (grey) were too far above raw minima (light blue).  Result: garbage. Acorn 2 has changed maxima (dark red) back to approximately raw values, and reduced minima (dark blue) markedly.  This is not the “mean of the original adjusted maximum and adjusted minimum”.

The problem was caused by far too large adjustments to both maxima and minima, and was fixed by reducing the minimum, and raising the maximum, on all days to almost the same as the raw figures.

Figure 7 shows the effect Acorn version 2 tinkering adjustments have on annual temperature trends at Nhill.

Figure 7:  Trends in Nhill minima 1944-2017

Nhill min ann trends

Acorn 1 had this series cooling very slightly at -0.13 ℃ per 100 years but Acorn 2 has reversed the Acorn 1 trend to +0.67 ℃ per 100 years.  (This is restored to about 0.13 ℃ above what the “raw” trend showed.)

Figure 8 shows the effect of including an extra 36 years of data on annual trends at Sale.

Figure 8:  Trends in Sale maxima 1910-2017

Sale max ann trends

The arrow shows where Acorn 1 starts in 1946.

Conclusion:

There are no additional stations, but an extra 36 years of data at Sale has a large impact on annual trends.  Melbourne Regional Office is now amalgamated with Olympic Park, despite having only 19 months of overlap.

Large differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 daily data of several degrees Celsius are found at Orbost, Sale, and Rutherglen.

New record maxima were established at Cape Otway, Gabo Island, and Mildura. New record low temperatures were established Cape Otway, Laverton, Melbourne R.O., Nhill, Rutherglen, and Wilson’s Promontory.

The issue of instances of minima being higher than maxima caused by too vigorous adjustments at eight stations (including 48 instances at Orbost, 63 at Cape Otway, and 79 at Wilson’s Promontory) has been “fixed”- only seven years after the problem was pointed out.

Excessive adjustments have resulted in Nhill’s Acorn 1 minima trend of -0.13℃ per 100 years being changed to +0.67 ℃ in Acorn 2.

The size of the adjustments only seven years after the “world’s best practice” dataset was launched, is incredible, and demands explanation.  The explanation that Acorn Version 2 “applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies”, is beyond belief, as nearly every dataset so far examined is vastly different from Acorn Version 1.  This is not incremental improvement.

In the ACORN-SAT FAQs, in the answer to:

“Why should the adjustments change, weren’t they correct the first time?”

the Bureau says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

By their own words they have condemned themselves- “wildly different results” is exactly what has been produced.  Adjustments made in Version 1 were apparently made in error as they have been “corrected” by adjustments in version 2.  Will these adjustments be in error and corrected in version 3?

It’s a joke, a continuing comedy of errors.

I have so far looked at 87 of the 112 Acorn stations.  Next up: New South Wales.

ACORN-SAT 2.0: Tasmania- May the Farce be with you

April 1, 2019

This is the fifth in a series of posts in which I directly compare the most recent version of Australia’s temperature record, ACORN-SAT 2, with that of the previous version, ACORN-SAT 1.  Daily data are directly downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology. I do not analyse against raw data (available at Climate Data Online), except for particular examples, as I am interested in how different Acorn 2 is from Acorn 1.  The basis for the new version is in the Research Report.  The Bureau has published a new station catalogue with more detailed information, the adjustment summary for each station, plus lists of comparative stations for adjustments and all comparison stations for each site, with explanations of adjustment terminology.  Well worth a look.

See my previous posts for Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland, and South Australia for a general introduction.  An important addition to this general introduction is this paragraph on the ACORN-SAT home page:

The purpose of updating datasets like ACORN-SAT is principally to incorporate data that has been recorded since the last analysis was released, as well as historical paper records that have been recently digitised. ACORN-SAT version 2 also incorporates the findings and recommendations of the Technical Advisory Forum, applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies. The overall aim of the update to ACORN-SAT is to provide improved estimates of historical changes in climate.

The Context – Tasmania

Figure 1 is a map of Australia showing all of the Bureau’s ACORN-SAT climate monitoring stations.  Tasmania is an island state with a cool marine climate.

Figure 1:  Australian ACORN-SAT stations

Tas map

There are seven Acorn stations in the Tasmanian BOM database.  Differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 are summarized in the following sections.

Largest temperature differences

In maxima, changes to Acorn 1 daily data ranged from +5.4 ℃ at Larapuna (Eddystone Point) to -7.3 ℃ in 1946 at Butlers Gorge applied to individual daily figures.

Figure 2:  Daily changes in maxima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Butlers Gorge

ButlersGorge max adj

Minima adjustments ranged from -9.7 ℃ to +11.3 ℃ at Butlers Gorge on individual days but with many days adjusted by -2℃ or greater.   Most changes were small but numerous, for example at Launceston where the changes to Acorn 1 ranged between -1 ℃ and +2 ℃ for many years.

Figure 3:  Daily changes in minima from Acorn 1 to Acorn 2 at Launceston:

Launceston min diffs

(Remember, these are adjustments to Acorn 1, which was supposed to be “world’s best practice” seven years ago.  How did the Bureau get it so wrong the first time?  Has world’s best practice changed so much in seven years?)

Record temperatures

New record maxima were established at Butlers Gorge, Cape Bruny Lighthouse, Larapuna (Eddystone Point), and Low Head.

Figure 4:  Three versions of maximum at Low Head 3 February 1912

LowHd record max

New record low temperatures were established at all stations except Butlers Gorge.  Low Head’s minima was reduced by 0.7 ℃ to -2.9 ℃.

Figure 5:  Three versions of minima at Low Head July 1944

LowHd record min

Acorn version 1 had warmed the minima by 0.6 ℃, but version 2 cools version 1 by 0.7 ℃, making it 0.1 ℃ cooler than the raw figure.  Strange things happen in the past!

Quality Control: especially minimum temperatures higher than maximum.

In Acorn 1, five out of the seven stations had at least one example of minimum higher than maximum- including 37 times at Butlers Gorge and 39 times at Low Head (again), where the worst example was minimum 2.1 ℃ above maximum in December 1926.  Blair Trewin claims he has “fixed” this problem (which he concedes was “physically unrealistic”) by adjusting temperatures in Acorn 2 so that the maximum and minimum are the same, so that DTR for the day is zero.  In his words:

A procedure was therefore adopted under which, if a day had a negative diurnal range in the adjusted data, the maximum and minimum temperatures were each corrected to the mean of the original adjusted maximum and adjusted minimum, creating no change in the daily mean.

That is not how he “corrected” the worst Tasmanian example in Acorn 1 (minimum 2.1 ℃ above maximum at Low Head).  Here is a plot of the raw data and changes made by Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 at Low Head in December 1926.

Figure 6:  Low Head temperatures December 1926

LowHd DTR

Acorn 1 maxima (orange line) were reduced too far below Raw (brown). Acorn 1 minima (grey) were too far above raw minima (light blue).  Result: garbage. Acorn 2 has changed maxima (dark red) back above raw, and reduced minima (dark blue) almost to the same value as raw, except on the 17th when it has been made the same as the Acorn 2 maximum.  This is not the “mean of the original adjusted maximum and adjusted minimum”.

The problem was caused by far too large adjustments to maxima, and was fixed by arbitrarily making the minimum on the 17th the same as the maximum, unusually higher than other minima adjustments.

Figure 7 shows the effect Acorn tinkering adjustments have on annual temperature trends at Butlers Gorge.

Figure 7:  Trends in Butlers Gorge minima 1944-2017

ButlersGorge min ann trends

Acorn 1 had this series cooling very slightly at -0.12 ℃ per 100 years but Acorn 2 has reversed the Acorn 1 trend to +0.54 ℃ per 100 years.  (This is restored to what the “raw” trend showed, from a messy record with huge data gaps.)

Conclusion:

There are no additional stations, so Tasmania has only seven stations.

There is no more additional digitized data, except for the period 2012 to 2017.

Large differences between Acorn 1 and Acorn 2 daily data of several degrees Celsius are found at Larapuna and Butlers Gorge.

New record maxima were set at Butlers Gorge, Cape Bruny, Larapuna, and Low Head.  New record low temperatures were established at all stations except Butlers Gorge.

The issue of instances of minima being higher than maxima caused by too vigorous adjustments (37 times at Butlers Gorge and 39 times at Low Head has been “fixed” by arbitrary adjustments.

Excessive adjustments have resulted in Butler Gorge’s Acorn 1 minima trend of -0.12℃ per 100 years being changed to +0.54 ℃ in Acorn 2.

The size of the adjustments only seven years after the “world’s best practice” dataset was launched, is incredible, and demands explanation.  The explanation that Acorn Version 2 “applies the latest scientific research and understanding and, where applicable, introduces new methodologies”, is beyond belief, as nearly every dataset so far examined is vastly different from Acorn Version 1.  This not incremental improvement.

In the ACORN-SAT FAQs, in the answer to:

“Why should the adjustments change, weren’t they correct the first time?”

the Bureau spokesman says:

“… The important question is not which one (version) represents the absolute truth, but whether those estimates produce wildly different results, and whether the range of estimates provides a reasonable guide to what has actually occurred.”

By their own words they have condemned themselves- “wildly different results”  is exactly what has been produced.

 

What a farce.

I have so far looked at 76 of the 112 Acorn stations.  Next up: Victoria.