Archive for the ‘temperature’ Category

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 108- Emerald (Qld)

September 22, 2019

Sunday 22/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Emerald Airport 35264

Opened: 1981

Daily Temperature data from: 1992

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Barcaldine, Bundaberg, Charters Towers, Longreach, Rockhampton.

Location:   Co-ordinates  -23.5694 148.1756

About 650 km north-west of Brisbane, 240 km west of Rockhampton.

Emerald map

The  BOM site plan 2017 doesn’t tell us much:

Emerald plan2017

But the 2019 Google satellite image is much more revealing:

Emerald aerial

The wider view shows the airport size:

Emerald airport

Emerald is a busy regional airport with jet flights carrying in FIFO workers for the many coal mines of the district.  The screen is only 30 metres from the turning area/apron which has nearly 3 hectares (more than 6 acres) of tarmac.  BOM specifications for screens at airports stipulate a minimum distance of 80 metres from turning areas: the World Meteorological Organisation recommends 150 metres.  This is because starting and turning aircraft must increase throttle to overcome inertia, generating large amounts of propwash or jet exhaust.  This interferes with temperature measurement.  Further, that large area of tarmac absorbs and releases much more thermal energy than grass or soil, also increasing recorded temperature.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 14.92%.

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The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 107- Yeppoon (Qld)

September 21, 2019

Saturday 21/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Yeppoon The Esplanade 33294

Opened: 1993

Daily Temperature data from: 1993

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates  -23.1364 150.7506

Yeppoon map

About 540km north-north-west of Brisbane, 40km north-east of Rockhampton.

2017 BOM site plan:

Yeppoon plan2017

2019 Google satellite image:

Yeppoon aerial

This is good evidence that the satellite image is not from 2019 but is 18 months to 2 years old, because there is no sign of the Yeppoon Lagoon, a brand new water park and pool which has been built just to the north of the Council offices.

2016 Google street view:

Yeppoon street 2016

The screen is right beside a dirt road and close to a bitumen road, and in a car park- cars can and do park within three metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 14.78%.

Of the 8 checkable stations in Capricornia, 4 are not compliant, and all of these are within 120km of my home.  Grrr!!!

Tomorrow we move inland to the Central Highlands and Coalfields forecast district.  This large region is loosely based on the Fitzroy River catchment, which drains to Great Barrier Reef waters, and that’s the reason I include it in the run up the coast.  The Bowen Basin coalfields cover most of the region and there is extensive cattle grazing and broadacre farming (cotton, sorghum, wheat, chick peas) both irrigated and dryland.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 106- Rockhampton (Qld)

September 21, 2019

Saturday 21/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Rockhampton Aero 39083

Opened: 1939

Daily Temperature data from: 1939

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bundaberg, Mackay, Charters Towers (570km away!)

Location:   Co-ordinates  -23.3753 150.4775

Rocky map

About 525km north-north-west of Brisbane.

2017 BOM site plan:

Rocky plan2017

2019 Google satellite image:

Rocky aerial

Rockhampton is an Acorn site, but the Bureau does not use it for climate analysis because it has been subject to Urban Heat Island effect.  The screen is 35 metres from a large bitumen area- too close- and if used for aircraft start up or turning that is far too close.  But the chief problem is that the instrument area is on a mound built up 1.5 metres above the surrounding area- to keep the instruments clear of flood waters as the airport is built on the Fitzroy flood plain.  This means that on still cold nights in winter, cold air will drain away from the screen and so minimum temperatures reported will be warmer.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 14.64%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 105- Gladstone Airport (Qld)

September 20, 2019

Friday 20/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Gladstone Airport  39326

Opened: 1993

Daily Temperature data from: 1993

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bundaberg, Gayndah, Rockhampton.

Location:   Co-ordinates  -23.8697 151.2214

GladstoneAir map

About 435km north-north-west of Brisbane.

2018 BOM site plan:

GladstoneAir plan2018

2019 Google satellite image:

GladstoneAir aerial

Google satellite image wider view:

Gladstoneair wider

Very poor siting for many reasons:  It is less than 20 metres from a bitumen road, 25 metres from a tarmac aircraft apron, 35 metres from the taxiway.  Suburban houses are 60 metres away.   Railway yards and industrial sheds are 500 metres away.  Gladstone is an industrial city and port producing coal, electricity, alumina, aluminium, and gas, so there is no shortage of UHI.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 14.5%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 104- Gladstone Radar (Qld)

September 20, 2019

Friday 20/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Gladstone Radar  39123

Opened: 1957

Daily Temperature data from: 1957

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates  -23.8553 151.2628

Gladstoneradar map

About 435km north-north-west of Brisbane.

2016 BOM site plan:

Gladstoneradar plan2016

2019 Google satellite image:

Gladstoneradar aerial

The screen is less than 6 metres from trees “to 8m” and less than 40 metres from the radar tower and bitumen surrounds.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 14.36%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 103- Tewantin (Qld)

September 19, 2019

Thursday 19/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Tewantin RSL Park 40908

Opened: 1995

Daily Temperature data from: 1996

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Gayndah

Location:   Co-ordinates  -26.3911 153.0403

Tewantin map

About 120km north of Brisbane.

2019 BOM site plan:

Tewantin plan2019

2019 Google satellite image:

Tewantin aerial

Google street view 2018:

Tewantin street2018

The screen is far too close to trees, a footpath, bitumen roads and parking areas, and enclosed by a black metal pool fence.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 14.23%.

We now leave SEQ and tomorrow will move up the coast to CQ and the Capricornia forecast district.  A summary of non-compliance rates at Queensland sites so far:

Darling Downs and Granite Belt:

9 stations, 1 can’t be checked, 4 probably compliant, 4 not:  50%.

Southeast Coast:

19 stations, 8 not compliant: 42%

Wide Bay and Burnett:

13 stations, 8 not compliant: 61.5%

SEQ sub-total:

40 checkable stations, 20 not compliant: 50%.

I’m embarrassed to be a Queenslander!

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 102- Rainbow Beach (Qld)

September 19, 2019

Thursday 19/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Rainbow Beach 40856

Opened: 1992

Daily Temperature data from: 1992

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bundaberg, Cape Moreton.

Location:   Co-ordinates  -25.9007  153.0891

RainbowBch map

About 170km north of Brisbane.

2019 BOM site plan:

RainbowBch plan2019

2019 Google satellite image:

RainbowBch aerial

Between and too close to two bitumen roads, and 15 metres from 8 metre trees (should be 32 metres away).  As well the open ground across the street looks ideal for housing or commercial development in the next few years.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites not compliant: 14.09%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 101- Hervey Bay (Qld)

September 18, 2019

Wednesday 18/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Hervey Bay Airport 40405

Opened: 1999

Daily Temperature data from: 1999

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bundaberg, Cape Moreton.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -25.3220 152.8817

HerveyBay map

About 240km north of Brisbane.

2013 BOM site plan:

HerveyBay plan2013

That is the most recent plan, but there are previous site plans, e.g. 2011:

HerveyBay plan2011

This shows the station endangered by erosion from a nearby gully.

From 1999 to 2005 the station was in a different and decidedly non-compliant location, as this 2002 plan shows:

HerveyBay plan2002

2019 Google satellite image:

HerveyBay aerial

The site has been cleared of shrubs and grass and the gully partly filled in.  Note the thicker, greener grass in the gully and near the runway.  The site is not at all representative of the surrounding vegetation.  While the grass is likely to regrow and thicken in time, this means that the site’s micro-climate will change with it.  Before 2006, the station was in a different location very close to trees.

As well, site plans differ as to whether the site is oriented to True or Magnetic North.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites not compliant: 13.95%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 100- Tin Can Bay (Qld)

September 18, 2019

Wednesday 18/09/2019

This post represents a small milestone- the 100th station identified as being non-compliant with Bureau of Meteorology specifications.  Of the 430 sites I have looked at so far, this means over 23% do not comply in some way.

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Tin Can Bay (Defence) 140010

Opened: 2018

Daily Temperature data from: 2018

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: –

Location:   Co-ordinates   -25.9351 152.9647

TinCanBay map

About 170km north of Brisbane.

2019 BOM site plan:

TinCanBay plan2019

Though this site was supposed to be opened in 2018, there is a 2016 site plan showing it in exactly the same location.

2019 Google satellite image:

TinCanBay aerial

The screen is well away from the trees and bitumen road on the old disused airstrip, but “mostly grassed” means mostly bare soil, compared with the much darker grass between the trees 50 metres north-west.  The site is not at all representative of the surrounding vegetation.  While the grass is likely to regrow and thicken in time, this means that the site’s micro-climate will change with it.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites not compliant: 13.81%- but hang around, there are many more stations to check, and I can promise the non-compliance rate will get much, much higher.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 99- Seventeen Seventy (Qld)

September 17, 2019

Tuesday 17/09/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.

Station: Seventeen Seventy 39314

Opened: 1986

Daily Temperature data from: 1986

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bundaberg, Brisbane, Gayndah.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -24.1568 151.8889

1770 map

About 390km north-north-west of Brisbane.

2015 BOM site plan:

1770 plan2015

2019 Google satellite image:

1770 aerial

Tupia St is named after Tupia, a Tahitian who was being taken back to Britain by Joseph Banks.  Seventeen Seventy was the second landing point of the Endeavour.

The screen is close to houses, tanks, fences, a rock wall, shrubs and scrub.

Not withstanding the historical significance of the location, this station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites not compliant: 13.67%