Australia's Wacky Weather Stations: Final Summary

January 16, 2020

(Updated 17/01/2020)

Australia, being a wealthy, modern, western nation with a very well-resourced Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), might be expected to have weather stations that set a high standard of siting and reliability.

Unfortunately, that is far from the case.  This pie chart shows the percentage of weather stations that comply with siting specifications, don’t meet those specifications, or are “marginal”- not fully compliant but not as bad as some.

Nearly half do not comply with siting guidelines as outlined in Observation Specification No. 2013.1 (drafted in January 1997).

Less than a third comply and may be relied on (assuming that the screen and the immediate area around it is kept well maintained with a few centimetres of natural grass, and the surrounding environment does not change).

The marginal stations may or may not be reliable.

In Australia it is apparently quite OK to have thermometers beside houses, in bitumen carparks, in a vegetable garden surrounded by a corrugated iron fence, beside incinerators, behind 6 metre prison walls, beside piles of human excrement, in the middle of a dirt road, on the roof of a wharf shed, beside a multi-lane highway, shaded by trees, or in screens that are covered in spider webs, invaded by mud wasps, or used by cattle as a back-scratcher.  The area around the screens can be dusty bare dirt, overgrown with grass and weeds, or sprayed out to bare ground.

This map, thanks to Lance Pidgeon, shows the locations of weather stations audited.

As you can see, removing non-compliant and marginal sites leaves very large gaps.

Australia’s climate analysis is based on 112 stations in the ACORN-SAT network.  I surveyed 111 Acorn stations.  (Wittenoom stopped reporting in July 2019 and is now apparently closed).  Here is a pie chart of Acorn station compliance:

Again, thanks to Lance, this is a map of Australian Acorn stations….

…and this map shows the layout of the Acorn network with non-compliant stations removed, leaving marginal and compliant sites.

Only New South Wales has a decent density of compliant sites.  There are huge gaps in Queensland, Western Australia, and South Australia.  No wonder the Bureau is desperately defending their realm!

Here are the non-compliant Acorn sites.

Adelaide (Kent Town)Mackay
Albany AirportMarble Bar
BarcaldineMarree Airport
BridgetownMelbourne (Olympic Park)
CamoowealMerredin
Cape BordaMildura
Cape BrunyMiles
Cape LeeuwinMorawa Airport
Cape MoretonMoruya Heads
Cape OtwayNuriootpa
Charters TowersPoint Perpendicular
Coffs Harbour AirportRichmond (Qld)
Cunderdin AirportRobe
DalwallinuRockhampton
DeniliquinRutherglen
Geraldton AirportScone Airport
GilesSnowtown
Halls CreekSydney – Observatory Hill
HobartTownsville
KalumburuWandering
KerangWilcannia Airport
KyancuttaWilsons Promontory
Larapuna (Eddystone Point)Woomera
LongreachYamba

Summary

Of 666 weather stations I was able to identify and survey, nearly half (328) did not comply with siting specifications.

Less than a third (209) fully comply (assuming that the screens and surroundings are well maintained).

Another 129 are marginal- not fully compliant but not as bad as the non-compliant sites.

48 of the 111 remaining Acorn stations are not compliant, and a further 22 are marginal.

The Bureau of Meteorology starts its climate analysis using Acorn from 1910.  Reasons given are that the network, especially in remote areas, and also Western Australia and Tasmania,  was extremely sparse before this, and except in Queensland and South Australia (where Clement Wragge had instituted Stevenson screens and standardised practises by the mid-1890s) temperature observations and instrument siting were non-standard.  Temperature records before 1910 are not recognised by the Bureau.  For example, the hottest temperature recorded, 53.1C at Cloncurry on 16 January 1889 is discounted as it was not recorded in a Stevenson screen; and the temperature of 51.6C in Bourke on 3 January 1909 is discounted, even though it was in a Stevenson screen.  How can we be any more confident in current temperatures recorded at non-compliant sites?

With only 209 stations of the 666 surveyed fully complying with specifications, doubt must be raised not only about the modern network coverage but also the reliability and comparability of modern and historical temperature records.

The next step:

Over some time, I will be comparing data from several pairs of compliant and non-compliant stations to see if siting has any detectable effect on temperatures recorded.

Appendix:- Background and details of survey: 

In July 2019 I commenced a 6 month long survey of 666 weather stations that currently report temperatures to the Latest Weather Observations pages for each state (also to Climate Data Online and to international weather and climate agencies).  Many are used to make adjustments to Acorn stations. Of the 753 stations listed (and these change from time to time) I was able to identify and examine 666. 

I did not include offshore island territories or islands far distant from the mainland (e.g. Willis island) but islands close to the coast were included.  Other stations not included were those in the National Tidal Centre network, which are located on wharves and breakwaters and have beehive screens instead of Stevenson screens; Lucas Heights nuclear facility; a number of recent defence stations that were impossible to locate; stations in areas where satellite imagery has poor resolution, and a number of sites that have not yet been included in the BOM metadata and thus have no site plans and can’t be located- a good example is Wellcamp Airport in southern Queensland. (See below for the full list.)

The process I used is outlined  in my post “How to check for yourself”.  I also made use of information and photographs supplied by colleagues with local knowledge.

There are 328 examples of stations that are not compliant with specifications, listed by state here.

This is an example of a compliant station:  Amberley AMO  40004 which is an Acorn station.

Google satellite image: 

This is an example of a marginal station:  Nullo Mountain 62100

Google satellite image: 

It has patches of rougher/ longer vegetation nearby and a large tree about 20 metres away.

(And the more I look at marginal sites the more I find that I should really have classified more as not compliant.)

These are the marginal stations (Acorn marked *):

Adelaide AirportMiddle Point
ArmidaleMilingimbi
BatchelorMoomba Airport
Batemans BayMortlake
Bathurst *Moss Vale
Boulia *Mount Boyce
Bourke *Mount Bundey North (Defence)
Bowen Airport AWSMount Crawford
Bradshaw-Angallari Valley (Defence)Mount Ginini
BrisbaneMount Ive
Brisbane Airport *Mount Magnet Airport
BulmanMount Moornapa
Burketown Airport *Mudgee
Cape GrimNambour
Cape SorellNeptune Island
Central Arnhem PlateauNew May Downs
CerberusNgayawili (Elcho Island)
CharltonNgukurr AWS
CombienbarNhill Aerodrome *
CooktownNoarlunga
CoonawarraNoonamah
CootamundraNullo Mountain
Cowley Beach (Defence)Oakey
Cultana (Defence)Oodnadatta *
Darwin Airport *Orbost *
DerbyPalmerville *
Devonport AirportParramatta
Dum In MirriePearce
DwellingupPort Augusta
Eildon Fire TowerPort Fairy
ElliottPortland Airport
Esperance AirportRedland (Alexandra Hills)
Essendon AirportRhyll
Eucla *Sheffield
FingalSheoaks
Forrest *Shepparton
Fowlers GapSt George *
Gabo Island *Stawell
GelantipyStenhouse Bay
Grafton AirportSwan Hill
Grove *Sweers Island
Hamilton IslandSydney Olympic Park
Horn Island *Tabulam
Hume ReservoirTarcoola *
Hunters HillTaree Airport
Jervis Bay AirfieldTemora
JervoisTennant Creek *
kunanyi / Mount WellingtonTerrey Hills
Kununurra AirportThargomindah *
Lake JuliusThe Monument
Lake Macquarie – CooranbongTibooburra Airport *
Lake St ClairTocal
Lancelin (Defence)Townsville Air Weapons Range (Defence)
Launceston Airport *Trepell
Laverton (WA)Tunnack
Legendre IslandTurretfield
Leigh CreekVictor Harbor
Leonora AirportWadeye (Port Keats)
LombadinaWarruwi
LostockWhite Cliffs AWS
Low Head *Windorah
Luncheon HillWoolbrook
Mackay AirportYanakie
McArthur River MineYoung
Melbourne Airport

These are the stations listed in Latest Weather Observations that I did not use (plus offshore island territories). You are welcome to try- let me know if you have any success.

Adele IslandMelville Water
Arlington ReefMiddle Percy Island
Banana BankMount Buller
Barrow IslandMount Bundey South (Defence)
Bedout IslandMount Hope
Bradshaw-Koolendong ValleyMount Hotham Airport
BrewonMount Keith
Broome PortMount Read
Browse IslandMulurulu
Bulga DownsNoona
Burnie PortNorth Head
Busselton JettyNorth Island
Canungra (Defence)Oberon
Cape FergusonOcean Reef
Cape WesselOuter Harbor (Black Pole)
Christmas CreekPaynes Find
Colpoys PointPoint Avoid
CoondewannaPort Kembla Harbour
Croker Island AirportPortland Harbour
Darwin HarbourPuckapunyal-Lyon Hill (Defence)
Degrussa AerodromeRosslyn Bay Harbour
DoonganRowley Shoals
Edi UpperSellicks Hill
Esperance HarbourSmithville
Evans HeadSolomon Airport
Fawkner BeaconSouth Channel Island
Fort DenisonSpitfire Channel
Fortescue Dave ForrestSpring Bay
FrankstonSt Kilda Harbour RMYS
GluepotSwan Island
Gooseberry HillSydney Harbour
Hay PointThevenard Island
Heron IslandThursday Island
Hillarys Point Boat HarbourTownsville – Fanning River (Defence)
Hindmarsh IslandTroughton Island
Inner BeaconUrandangi
Kingfish BVaranus Island
KurnellWarburto Point
Little BayWarburton
LochingtonWattamolla
Low Rocky PointWellcamp Airport
Lucas Heights (ANSTO)West Roebuck
Maatsuyker IslandYampi Sound (Defence)
Maitland Airport

The Wacky World of Weather Stations by State

January 12, 2020

Here are 328 Australian weather stations that are not compliant with Bureau of Meteorology specifications for siting.

Site compliance is important because temperature data from these stations is liberally reported in the media especially if hot or cold records are set. They also contribute to AWAP (the Australian Water Availability Project) and ADAM which produce maps of present and past temperatures. As well, data from these stations is used to homogenise data at stations in Australia’s ACORN-SAT network, which are used for showing trends since 1910. Finally, this data is exported to be used by international databases (GISSCruTem4) for regional and global climate analysis. If the data is affected by site specific factors, e.g being too close to a road, this may affect the quality of the analysis.

I am agnostic as to the overall effect of these poorly sited stations. Maxima at some sites may be artificially low, or minima may be artificially high, and this may vary with seasons and rainfall. Analysis and comparison of temperatures will come later. My focus here is to show the large number of modern stations whose data may be unreliable.

The quality of these non-compliant stations varies. While some are truly horrendous, others are not nearly as bad, but all fail on one or more specifications.

Find your favourite station, click on it, and the link will take you to my assessment of its siting quality. Use the back arrow to return here.

South AustraliaVictoria
Adelaide (SA)Aireys Inlet (Vic)
Andamooka (SA)Ararat (Vic)
Arkaroola (SA)Avalon (Vic)
Cape Borda (SA)Bairnsdale (Vic)
Cape Willoughby (SA)Ben Nevis (Vic)
Cleve (SA)Cape Nelson (Vic)
Cleve Airport (SA)Cape Otway (Vic)
Cummins Airport (SA)Castlemaine (Vic)
Edinburgh (SA)Coldstream (Vic)
Edithburgh (SA)Dartmouth (Vic)
Elliston (SA)Echuca Airport (Vic)
Eudunda (SA)Falls Creek (Vic)
Kadina (SA)Ferny Creek (Vic)
Karoonda (SA)Horsham (Vic)
Keith (SA)Kerang (Vic)
Kimba (SA)Lake Eildon (Vic)
Kingscote (SA)Lakes Entrance (Vic)
Kuitpo (SA)Latrobe Valley  (Vic)
Kyancutta (SA)Longerenong (Vic)
Lameroo (SA)Maryborough (Vic)
Loxton (SA)Melbourne (Vic)
Maitland (SA)Mildura (Vic)
Marree (SA)Moorabbin (Vic)
Meningie (SA)Mount Nowa Nowa (Vic)
Minlaton Aero (SA)Mount William (Vic)
Minnipa (SA)Omeo (Vic)
Mount Barker (SA)Point Hicks (Vic)
Mount Lofty (SA)Redesdale (Vic)
Murray Bridge (SA)Rutherglen (Vic)
Naracoorte (SA)Scoresby (Vic)
Nullarbor (SA)Tatura (Vic)
Nuriootpa (SA)Viewbank (Vic)
Padthaway (SA)Walpeup (Vic)
Pallamana (SA)
Price (SA)Wangaratta (Vic)
Robe (SA)Warracknabeal (Vic)
Roseworthy (SA)Warragul (Vic)
Snowtown (SA)Warrnambool (Vic)
Streaky Bay (SA)Westmere (Vic)
Warooka (SA)Wilsons Promontory (Vic)
Whyalla (SA)Wonthaggi (Vic)
Woomera (SA)
Yongala (SA)Tasmania
Bushy Park (Tas)
Northern TerritoryCape Bruny (Tas)
Black Point (NT)Cape Bruny AWS (Tas)
Centre Island  (NT)Cressy (Tas)
Charles Point (NT)Dover (Tas)
Curtin Springs (NT)Flinders Island Airport (Tas)
Jabiru (NT)Friendly Beaches (Tas)
Kangaroo Flats (NT)Hartz Mountain (Tas)
Kintore (NT)Hobart (Tas)
Kulgera (NT)Lake Leake (Tas)
Lajamanu Airport (NT)Larapuna (Eddystone Pt) (Tas)
Murganella Airstrip (NT)Launceston (Tas)
Pirlangimpi (NT)Marrawah (Tas)
Point Fawcett (NT)Maydena (Tas)
Point Stuart (NT)Orford (Tas)
Territory Grape Farm (NT)Ouse (Tas)
Yulara Airport (NT)Scotts Peak (Tas)
Strahan (Tas)
Warra (Tas)
Wynyard (Tas)
West AustraliaNew South Wales
Albany (WA)Albury (NSW)
Albany Airport (WA)Balranald (NSW)
Argyle (WA)Bankstown (NSW)
Badgingarra (WA)Barraba (NSW)
Barimunya (WA)Bathurst Airport (NSW)
Beverley (WA)Bombala (NSW)
Bickley (WA)Bombala AWS (NSW)
Bidyadanga (WA)Brewarrina (NSW)
Bridgetown (WA)Burrinjuck Dam (NSW)
Busselton (WA)Cape Byron (NSW)
Cape Leeuwin (WA)Cobar Airport (NSW)
Cape Naturaliste (WA)Coffs Harbour (NSW)
Carnamah (WA)Collarenebri (NSW)
Carnegie (WA)Coonabarabran (NSW)
Collie East (WA)Coonabarabran Airport (NSW)
Corrigin (WA)Cowra (NSW)
Cunderdin (WA)Deniliquin (NSW)
Cygnet Bay (WA)Dunedoo (NSW)
Dalwallinu (WA)Forster (NSW)
Denham (WA)Grafton Airport (NSW)
Donnybrook (WA)Green Cape (NSW)
Eyre (WA)Grafton AgRS (NSW)
Geraldton Airport (WA)Griffith (NSW)
Giles (WA)Gulgong (NSW)
Goomalling (WA)Gundagai (NSW)
Gosnells City (WA)Guyra (NSW)
Halls Ck (WA)Hillston (NSW)
Hopetoun North (WA)Holsworthy (Defence) (NSW)
Hyden (WA)Katoomba (NSW)
Jacup (WA)Lake Cargelligo (NSW)
Jarrahwood (WA)Lake Victoria (NSW)
Jurien Bay (WA)Lightning Ridge (NSW)
Kalbarri (WA)Lismore Airport (NSW)
Kalumburu (WA)Mangrove Mountain (NSW)
Karijini North (WA)Menindee (NSW)
Karratha (WA)Merimbula (NSW)
Kellerberrin (WA)Montague Island (NSW)
Lake Grace (WA)Moruya Heads (NSW)
Lancelin (WA)Mount Seaview (NSW)
Leinster (WA)Mungindi  (NSW)
Mandora (WA)Murrurundi (NSW)
Mandurah (WA)Murwillumbah (NSW)
Manjimup (WA)Narooma (NSW)
Marble Bar (WA)Nelson Bay (NSW)
Merredin (WA)Newcastle (NSW)
Millendon (WA)Newcastle Univ. (NSW)
Morawa (WA)Norah Head (NSW)
Mount Elizabeth (WA)Nyngan (NSW)
Mount Barker (WA)Parkes (NSW)
Mullewa (WA)Peak Hill (NSW)
Munglinup West (WA)Penrith (NSW)
Murchison (WA)Perisher Valley (NSW)
Narembeen (WA)Pindari Dam (NSW)
Narrogin (WA)Pooncarrie (NSW)
Newman Aero (WA)Point Perpendicular (NSW)
Northam (WA)Quirindi (NSW)
Ongerup (WA)Scone (NSW)
Pemberton (WA)Singleton (NSW)
Perth Metro (WA)Smoky Cape (NSW)
Pingelly (WA)Springwood (NSW)
Ravensthorpe (WA)Sydney  (NSW)
Red Rocks Point (WA)Sydney Airport (NSW)
Salmon Gums RS (WA)Taralga  (NSW)
Shark Bay Airport (WA)Tenterfield (NSW)
Southern Cross (WA)Thredbo Village (NSW)
Swanbourne (WA)Tocumwal (NSW)
Telfer (WA)Tumbarumba (NSW)
Wagin (WA)Ulladulla (NSW)
Warmun (WA)Wanaaring (NSW)
Wiluna (WA)Wellington (NSW)
Witchcliffe (WA)Wilcannia Airport (NSW)
Wongan Hills (WA)Yamba (NSW)
York (WA)Yanco (NSW)
Wandering (WA)
Queensland
Alva Beach (Qld)Low Isles (Qld)
Applethorpe (Qld)Lucinda (Qld)
Ayr DPI (Qld)Mackay MO (Qld)
Barcaldine (Qld)Mareeba (Qld)
Beaudesert (Qld)Miles (Qld)
Bedourie (Qld)Mitchell (Qld)
Bollon (Qld)Mornington Is Airport (Qld)
Cape Flattery (Qld)Mount Isa  (Qld)
Cape Moreton (Qld)Mount Stuart Defence (Qld)
Camooweal (Qld)Point Lookout (Qld)
Cardwell (Qld)Rainbow Beach (Qld)
Century Mine (Qld)Redcliffe(Qld)
Charters Towers (Qld)Richmond (Qld)
Coconut Island (Qld)Rockhampton (Qld)
Collinsville (Qld)Rolleston (Qld)
Cunnamulla (Qld)Rundle Island (Qld)
Double Island Point (Qld)Sandy Cape (Qld)
Emerald (Qld)Seventeen Seventy (Qld)
Gladstone Airport (Qld)Springsure (Qld)
Gladstone Radar (Qld)Stanthorpe (Qld)
Gold Coast Seaway (Qld)South Johnstone (Qld)
Greenbank (Qld)Sunshine Coast Airport (Qld)
Gympie (Qld)Surat (Qld)
Hervey Bay (Qld)Tambo (Qld)
Ingham (Qld)Taroom (Qld)
Injune (Qld)Tewantin RSL Park (Qld)
Innisfail (Qld)Texas (Qld)
Innisfail Aero (Qld)Tin Can Bay (Qld)
Kowanyama Airport (QLD)Townsville (Qld)
Lady Elliott Island (Qld)Woolshed (Qld)
Logan City (Qld)Yeppoon (Qld)
Longreach (Qld)

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 328- Ferny Creek (Vic)

January 10, 2020

Friday 10/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Ferny Creek 86266

Opened: 2011

Daily Temperature data from: 2011

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -37.8748 145.3496

35km east of Melbourne CBD.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

Google ‘street’ view 2019 (photo Glenn Batchelor):

Drone photo:

The screen is on sloping land and is a few metres from shrubs; a 50m tall tree is about 40 metres away.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 49.25%.

That’s it: I think I’ve finished. Next I’ll update the index.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 327- Lake Grace (WA)

January 10, 2020

Friday 10/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Lake Grace 10911

Opened: 1997

Daily Temperature data from: 1997

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Esperance

Co-ordinates: -33.1006 118.4647

275km south-east of Perth

BOM site plan 2015:

Google satellite image:

Google street view 2008:

The screen is 15 metres from a bitumen road, 36 metres from a bitumen carpark, and 18 metres from the railway track. It is also close to bare dirt. Further, in 2008, either the area was watered or else the natural grass was worn away or removed to bare dirt to within a few metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 49.1%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 326- Albany Airport (WA)

January 10, 2020

Friday 10/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Albany Airport 9999

Opened: 2012

Daily Temperature data from: 2012

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -34.9411 117.8158

380km south-east of Perth

BOM site plan 2011:

Google satellite image:

This Acorn station was established here in 2012, but there have been no site plans since 2011. For a period of time until the grass grew, the enclosure was “sand”- similar to the bare areas beside the concrete path. Like many airports, it is on a raised mound of sand 60cm above the surroundings, so the screen in effect is 1.8 metres above natural ground level.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.95%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 325- Witchcliffe (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Witchcliffe 9746

Opened: 1999

Daily Temperature data from: 1999

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -34.0281 115.1042

230km south of Perth

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

This station is in the middle of a vineyard, surrounded by irrigated grape vines which are periodically pruned then grow luxuriantly to a couple of metres high. The screen will thus be shielded by the vines. See Nuriootpa.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.8%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 324- Badgingarra (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Badgingarra Research Station 9037

Opened: 1962

Daily Temperature data from: 1965

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Morawa

Co-ordinates: -30.3381 115.5394

180km north of Perth

BOM site plan 2013:

Google satellite image:

An ideal rural location? Not so. The screen is close to a tall crop in large clumps, and there is another growing crop across the road. The surrounding vegetation changes as crops grow and are harvested. As well the enclosure appears not to be well maintained grass to a few centimetres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations  and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.65%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 323- Red Rocks Point (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Red Rocks Point 11053

Opened: 1999

Daily Temperature data from: 1999

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -32.2028 127.5297

1,100km east of Perth, 1,070 west of Adelaide.

BOM site plan 2019:

Google satellite image:

The screen is on sand within a couple of metres of coastal shrubs to 2 metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.5%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 322- Shark Bay Airport (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Shark Bay Airport 6105

Opened: 2000

Daily Temperature data from: 2000

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: –25.8925 113.5772

710km north-west of Perth.

BOM site plan 2017:

Google satellite image:

The screen is on bare red dirt and less than 5 metres from 3 metre bushes.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.35%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 321- Telfer (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Telfer Aero 13030

Opened: 1974

Daily Temperature data from: 1974

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Marble Bar, Port Hedland, Wittenoom

Co-ordinates: -21.7125 122.2281

1,300km north-east of Perth.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

The screen is close to bare red dirt, dry and dusty for most of the year. Vehicles drive close to the screen.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.2%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 320- Karratha (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Karratha Aero 4083

Opened: 1971

Daily Temperature data from: 1993

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Marble Bar, Port Hedland, Wittenoom

Co-ordinates: -20.7097 116.7742

1,250km north of Perth.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

Google wider view:

Wider still:

The screen is on bare red dirt, dry and dusty for most of the year. The wider views show the extensive areas of paved aprons and car parks, and then the salt evaporation pans beyond. Not a good site.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 48.05%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 319- Argyle (WA)

January 9, 2020

Thursday 09/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Argyle Aerodrome 2064

Opened: 1986

Daily Temperature data from: 1994

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Halls Creek, Victoria River Downs

Co-ordinates: -16.6380 128.4516

580km south-west of Darwin, 680km north-east of Broome.

BOM site plan 2019:

Google satellite image:

The site plan is incorrect, the apron is at least 80 metres from the screen. However, the screen is on an area of bare dirt.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47.9%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 318- Centre Island (NT)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Centre Island 14703

Opened: 1968

Daily Temperature data from: 1974

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —-

Co-ordinates: -15.7426 136.8192

740km south-east of Darwin

BOM site plan 2017:

Google satellite image:

The screen is far too close to trees.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47.75%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 317- Murganella Airstrip (NT)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Murganella Airstrip 14309

Opened: 2012

Daily Temperature data from: 2012

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —-

Co-ordinates: -11.5485 132.9266

250km north-east of Darwin

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 4 metres from the bare dirt “cleared area” which surrounds the enclosure (which appears to have rough grass longer than a few centimetres.)

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47.6%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 316- Black Point (NT)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Black Point 14153

Opened: 1965

Daily Temperature data from: 1990

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Darwin

Co-ordinates: -11.1538 132.1430

200km north-east of Darwin

BOM site plan 2017:

Google satellite image:

The screen is right beside a dirt track, and 8 to 15 metres from 8m to 10m tall trees.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47.45%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 315- Redcliffe (Qld)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Redcliffe 40958

Opened: 2003

Daily Temperature data from: 2004

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -27.2169 153.0922

29km north of Brisbane

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 15 metres from a building and a bitumen path. The grass in the enclosure casts a shadow so must be much more than a few centimetres tall. Like so many others, this site is neglected and overgrown.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47.3%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 314- Mount Isa (Qld)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Mount Isa Aero 29127

Opened: 1966

Daily Temperature data from: 1966

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Boulia, Camooweal, Richmond (Qld), Tennant Creek

Co-ordinates: -20.6778 139.4875

1,565km north-west of Brisbane

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image:

The screen is on bare dusty soil.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47.15%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 313- Longreach (Qld)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Longreach Aero 36031

Opened: 1949

Daily Temperature data from: 1966

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Barcaldine, Boulia, Richmond (Qld)

Co-ordinates: -23.4397 144.2828

980km north-west of Brisbane

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

The screen is beside a timber board path and close to large areas of bare black soil, in contrast to the surrounding Mitchell grass.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 47%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 312- Rundle Island (Qld)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Rundle Island 39322

Opened: 1994

Daily Temperature data from: 1995

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -23.5322 151.2771

470km north of Brisbane, 80km south-east of Rockhampton, 33km north of Gladstone.

BOM site plan 2010:

Google satellite image:

The screen is perched on the crest of a steep rocky hill, close to bare rock and coastal shrubs, and not far from a helipad.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 46.85%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 311- Wilcannia Airport (NSW)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Wilcannia Aerodrome AWS 46012

Opened: 2000

Daily Temperature data from: 2000

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Wilcannia, Cobar

Co-ordinates: -31.5194 143.3850

775km north-west of Sydney, 585km north-east of Adelaide.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image:

Like so many outback airports, the screen is on a large area of dusty bare dirt. It is also only 60 metres from the apron and turning area.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 46.7%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 310- Cobar Airport (NSW)

January 8, 2020

Wednesday 08/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Cobar Airport AWS 48237

Opened: 1993

Daily Temperature data from: 1993

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Cobar, Bourke

Co-ordinates: -31.5388 145.7964

575km north-west of Sydney

BOM site plan 2015:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 9 metres from what appears to be a bitumen (or at least blue metal) road and parking area, and 30 metres from a large bitumen area around the wind sock and “Cobar” sign.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 46.55%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 309- Lake Cargelligo (NSW)

January 7, 2020

Tuesday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Lake Cargelligo Airport 75039

Opened: 1881

Daily Temperature data from: 1965

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Cobar, West Wyalong

Co-ordinates: -33.2832 146.3706

450km west of Sydney

BOM site plan 2017:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 26 metres from the asphalt aircraft apron, and close to areas of bare dirt.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 46.4%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 308- Cowra (NSW)

January 7, 2020

Tuesday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Cowra Airport AWS 65111

Opened: 2004

Daily Temperature data from: 2004

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Canberra

Co-ordinates: -33.8382 148.6540

235km west of Sydney

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 5 metres from a lucerne (?) hay paddock, and is surrounded on all sides. Lucerne (alfalfa in USA) grows luxuriantly green to about 60cm and is mowed to about 10cm probably every 6 to 10 weeks. This crop could be irrigated as well. This site is an improvement. Until 2014 it was within 10 metres of the aircraft taxiway and apron.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 46.25%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 307- Coonabarabran Airport (NSW)

January 7, 2020

Tuesday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Coonabarabran Airport AWS 64017

Opened: 2001

Daily Temperature data from: 2001

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -31.3330 149.2699

335km north-west of Sydney

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 40 metres from the tarmac apron and turning area, but only 20 metres from the aircraft parking area, where aircraft are started and turned. Aircraft can and probably do taxi and turn within 10 to 15 metres. The minimum distance is 80 metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 46.1%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 306- Perisher Valley (NSW)

January 6, 2020

Monday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Perisher Valley AWS 71075

Opened: 2010

Daily Temperature data from: 2010

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -36.4069 148.4055

380km south-west of Sydney, 345km north-east of Melbourne.

BOM site plan 2019:

Google satellite image:

2016 Photo by Perisher Ski Resort:

The screen is 13 metres from a gravel track, on the edge of a steep downslope, and surrounded by large rocks, shrubs, and grass to 50cm.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 45.95%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 305- Taralga (NSW)

January 6, 2020

Monday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Taralga Post Office 70080

Opened: 1882

Daily Temperature data from: 1957

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bathurst, Canberra

Co-ordinates: -34.4048 149.8197

140km south-west of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2013:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 7 metres from a solid steel fence and 5 to 10 metres from small trees, and 17 metres from a shed.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 45.8%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 304- Bathurst Airport (NSW)

January 6, 2020

Monday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Bathurst Airport 63291

Opened: 1988

Daily Temperature data from: 1990

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bathurst

Co-ordinates: -33.4119 149.6540

150km west of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2014:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 20 metres from large areas of bare dirt created by frequent vehicle traffic, and 42 metres from an aircraft turning area. The regulation distance is 80 metres.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 45.65%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 303- Narooma (NSW)

January 6, 2020

Monday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Narooma (Marine Rescue) 69022

Opened: 1910

Daily Temperature data from: 1965

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Co-ordinates: -36.2144 150.1358

270km south of Sydney CBD.

BOM site plan 2017:

Google satellite image:

The screen is 7 metres from a bitumen road and with nearby ground sloping steeply downhill. As well it is only 40 metres from a helipad.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites-

FAIL

Percentage of all sites non-compliant: 45.5%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 302- Penrith (NSW)

January 6, 2020

Monday 07/01/2020

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Penrith Lakes AWS 67113

Opened: 1995

Daily Temperature data from: 1995

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates  -33.7195 150.6783

52km west of Sydney CBD.

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image:

The screen is on dirt and 30 metres from large areas of bare dirt, and with nearby excavations.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites-

FAIL

The percentage of stations that are non-compliant: 45.35%

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 301- Holsworthy (Defence) (NSW)

January 6, 2020

Monday 07/01/2020

After a Christmas break we are now back into it. This is the first of another 28 posts on non-compliant stations, after which I will update the Index.

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Holsworthy (Defence) 68263

Opened: 2017

Daily Temperature data from: 2017

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates  -34.0811 150.9009

36km south-west of Sydney CBD.

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image:

The screen is on the edge of a large area of bare dirt and close to trees.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites-

FAIL

With a total of 666 stations I am able to check, this station brings the percentage of non-compliant stations to 45.2%.

The Search for Australia’s Worst Weather Station

December 18, 2019

With 300 of Australia’s official weather stations (out of a total of about 700) identified so far as not meeting Bureau of Meteorology specifications, we come to the daunting task of selecting the worst station from a long Roll of Dishonour. 

Naturally they come in a range of locations and environment types, so to help I have listed 25 stations that I think should be on the shortlist.  It was a difficult task to whittle the list down to 25- I left out many candidates.  You may disagree and you are welcome to recommend your own- but they must be currently reporting daily temperatures.

Browse through the list and click on each to take you to its report, then use the browser back arrow to return here, and nominate what you think is the worst.

First, a couple of stations NOT on the list (because they have recently moved to a better site and are not currently reporting from their old positions):

Streaky Bay (SA) and its 2019 Google satellite image:

Katoomba (NSW) and its Google street view from 2015:

If still in their old locations, these would have to be on the shortlist.

THE SHORTLIST

Ararat (Vic)

Cape Byron (NSW)

Castlemaine (Vic)

Cleve (SA)

Donnybrook (WA)

Emerald (Qld)

Gladstone Airport (Qld)

Goomalling (WA)

Gosnells City (WA)

Lancelin (WA)

Launceston (Tas)

Lucinda (Qld)

Maitland (SA)

Mandurah (WA)

Manjimup (WA)

Mount Barker (SA)

Murray Bridge (SA)

Narembeen (WA)

Newman Aero (WA) 

Price (SA) 

Rutherglen (Vic) 

Springwood (NSW) 

Sydney  (NSW) 

Sydney Airport (NSW)

Wilsons Promontory (Vic)

Which is the worst?

The Wacky World of Weather Stations Index

December 11, 2019

Here are 300 of the Australian weather stations that are not compliant with Bureau of Meteorology specifications for siting.

Site compliance is important because temperature data from these stations is liberally reported in the media especially if hot or cold records are set. They also contribute to AWAP (the Australian Water Availability Project) and ADAM which produce maps of present and past temperatures. As well, data from these stations is used to homogenise data at stations in Australia’s ACORN-SAT network, which are used for showing trends since 1910. Finally, this data is exported to be used by international databases (GISS, CruTem4) for regional and global climate analysis. If the data is affected by site specific factors, e.g being too close to a road, this may affect the quality of the analysis.

I am agnostic as to the overall effect of these poorly sited stations. Maxima at some sites may be artificially low, or minima may be artificially high, and this may vary with seasons and rainfall. Analysis and comparison of temperatures will come later. My focus here is to show the large number of modern stations whose data may be unreliable.

The quality of these non-compliant stations varies. While some are truly horrendous, others are not nearly as bad, but all fail on one or more specifications.

This page will be updated as extra stations are identified.

Find your favourite station, click on it, and the link will take you to my assessment of its siting quality. Use the back arrow to return here.

A
Adelaide (SA)Applethorpe (Qld)
Aireys Inlet (Vic)Ararat (Vic)
Albany (WA)Arkaroola (SA)
Albury (NSW) Avalon (Vic)
Alva Beach (Qld) Ayr DPI (Qld)
Andamooka (SA)
B
Bairnsdale (Vic)Bollon (Qld)
Balranald (NSW)Bombala (NSW)
Bankstown (NSW)Bombala AWS (NSW)
Barcaldine (Qld)Brewarrina (NSW)
Barimunya (WA)Bridgetown (WA)
Barraba (NSW)Burrinjuck Dam (NSW)
Beaudesert (Qld)Bushy Park (Tas)
Bedourie (Qld)Busselton (WA)
Ben Nevis (Vic)
Beverley (WA)
Bickley (WA)
Bidyadanga (WA)
C
Cape Flattery (Qld)Charles Point (NT)
Cape Leeuwin (WA)Charters Towers (Qld)
Cape Naturaliste (WA)Cleve (SA)
Camooweal (Qld)Cleve Airport (SA)
Cape Borda (SA)Coconut Island (Qld)
Cape Bruny (Tas)Coffs Harbour (NSW)
Cape Bruny AWS (Tas)Coldstream (Vic)
Cape Byron (NSW)Collarenebri (NSW)
Cape Moreton (Qld)Collie East (WA)
Cape Nelson (Vic)Collinsville (Qld)
Cape Otway (Vic) Coonabarabran (NSW)
Cape Willoughby (SA) Corrigin (WA)
Cardwell (Qld) Cressy (Tas)
Carnamah (WA) Cummins Airport (SA)
Carnegie (WA) Cunderdin (WA)
Castlemaine (Vic) Cunnamulla (Qld)
Century Mine (Qld) Curtin Springs (NT)
Cygnet Bay (WA)
D
Dalwallinu (WA)Deniliquin (NSW)
Dartmouth (Vic)Donnybrook (WA)
Double Island Point (Qld)Dover (Tas)
Denham (WA)Dunedoo (NSW)
E
Echuca Airport (Vic)Emerald (Qld)
Edinburgh (SA)Eudunda (SA)
Edithburgh (SA)Eyre (WA)
Elliston (SA)
F
Falls Creek (Vic)Forster (NSW)
Flinders Island Airport (Tas)Friendly Beaches (Tas)

G
Geraldton Airport (WA)Grafton Airport (NSW)
Giles (WA)Green Cape (NSW)
Gladstone Airport (Qld)Greenbank (Qld)
Gladstone Radar (Qld)Griffith (NSW)
Gold Coast Seaway (Qld)Gulgong (NSW)
Goomalling (WA)Gundagai (NSW)
Gosnells City (WA)Guyra (NSW)
Grafton AgRS (NSW)Gympie (Qld)
H
Halls Ck (WA)Hobart (Tas)
Hartz Mountain (Tas)Hopetoun North (WA)
Hervey Bay (Qld)Horsham (Vic)
Hillston (NSW)Hyden (WA)
I
Ingham (Qld)Innisfail (Qld)
Injune (Qld)Innisfail Aero (Qld)
J
Jabiru (NT)Jarrahwood (WA)
Jacup (WA)Jurien Bay (WA)
K
Kadina (SA)Kerang (Vic)
Kalbarri (WA)Kimba (SA)
Kalumburu (WA)Kingscote (SA)
Kangaroo Flats (NT)Kintore (NT)
Karijini North (WA)Kowanyama Airport (QLD)
Karoonda (SA)Kuitpo (SA)
Katoomba (NSW)Kulgera (NT)
Keith (SA)Kyancutta (SA)
Kellerberrin (WA)
L
Lady Elliott Island (Qld)Launceston (Tas)
Lajamanu Airport (NT)Leinster (WA)
Lake Eildon (Vic)Lightning Ridge (NSW)
Lake Leake (Tas)Lismore Airport (NSW)
Lake Victoria (NSW)Logan City (Qld)
Lakes Entrance (Vic)Longerenong (Vic)
Lameroo (SA)Low Isles (Qld)
Lancelin (WA)Loxton (SA)
Larapuna (Eddystone Pt) (Tas)Lucinda (Qld)
Latrobe Valley (Vic)
M
Mackay MO (Qld)Mitchell (Qld)
Maitland (SA)Montague Island (NSW)
Mandora (WA)Moorabbin (Vic)
Mandurah (WA)Morawa (WA)
Mangrove Mountain (NSW)Mornington Is Airport (Qld)
Manjimup (WA)Moruya Heads (NSW)
Marble Bar (WA)Mount Elizabeth (WA)
Mareeba (Qld)Mount Barker (SA)
Marrawah (Tas)Mount Barker (WA)
Marree (SA)Mount Lofty (SA)
Maryborough (Vic)Mount Nowa Nowa (Vic)
Maydena (Tas)Mount Stuart Defence (Qld)
Melbourne (Vic)Mount William (Vic)
Menindee (NSW)Mount Seaview (NSW)
Meningie (SA)Mullewa (WA)
Merimbula (NSW) Mungindi  (NSW)
Merredin (WA) Munglinup West (WA)
Minlaton Aero (SA) Murchison (WA)
Mildura (Vic) Murray Bridge (SA)
Miles (Qld) Murrurundi (NSW)
Millendon (WA) Murwillumbah (NSW)
Minnipa (SA)
N
Naracoorte (SA)Newman Aero (WA)
Narembeen (WA)Norah Head (NSW)
Narrogin (WA)Northam (WA)
Nelson Bay (NSW)Nullarbor (SA)
Newcastle (NSW)Nuriootpa (SA)
Newcastle Univ. (NSW)Nyngan (NSW)
O
Omeo (Vic)Orford (Tas)
Ongerup (WA)Ouse (Tas)
P
Padthaway (SA)Pirlangimpi (NT)
Pallamana (SA)Pooncarrie (NSW)
Parkes (NSW)Price (SA)
Peak Hill (NSW)Point Fawcett (NT)
Pemberton (WA)Point Hicks (Vic)
Perth Metro (WA)Point Lookout (Qld)
Pingelly (WA) Point Perpendicular (NSW)
Pindari Dam (NSW) Point Stuart (NT)
Q
Quirindi (NSW)
R
Rainbow Beach (Qld)Rockhampton (Qld)
Ravensthorpe (WA)Rolleston (Qld)
Redesdale (Vic)Roseworthy (SA)
Richmond (Qld)Rutherglen (Vic)
Robe (SA)
S
Salmon Gums RS (WA)Springwood (NSW)
Sandy Cape (Qld)Stanthorpe (Qld)
Scone (NSW)South Johnstone (Qld)
Scoresby (Vic)Strahan (Tas)
Scotts Peak (Tas)Streaky Bay (SA)
Seventeen Seventy (Qld)Sunshine Coast Airport (Qld)
Singleton (NSW)Surat (Qld)
Smoky Cape (NSW)Swanbourne (WA)
Snowtown (SA)Sydney  (NSW)
Southern Cross (WA)Sydney Airport (NSW)
Springsure (Qld)
T
Tambo (Qld)Texas (Qld)
Taroom (Qld)Thredbo Village (NSW)
Tatura (Vic)Tin Can Bay (Qld)
Tenterfield (NSW) Tocumwal (NSW)
Territory Grape Farm (NT)Townsville (Qld)
Tewantin RSL Park (Qld) Tumbarumba (NSW)
U
Ulladulla (NSW)
V
Viewbank (Vic)
W
Wagin (WA) Wellington (NSW)
Walpeup (Vic) Westmere (Vic)
Wanaaring (NSW) Whyalla (SA)
Wandering (WA) Wilsons Promontory (Vic)
Wangaratta (Vic) Wiluna (WA)
Warracknabeal (Vic) Wongan Hills (WA)
Warmun (WA) Wonthaggi (Vic)
Warooka (SA) Woolshed (Qld)
Warra (Tas) Woomera (SA)
Warragul (Vic) Wynyard (Tas)
Warrnambool (Vic)
Y
Yamba (NSW)York (WA)
Yanco (NSW) Yulara Airport (NT)
Yeppoon (Qld)
Yongala (SA)

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 300- Albany (WA)

December 11, 2019

Wednesday 11/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Albany 9500

Opened: 1877

Daily Temperature data from: 1907

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates -35.0289 117.8808

390km south-east of Perth.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

Google street view 2018:

The screen is 8 metres from a concrete slab, 13 metres from a building, 20 to 30 metres from trees, 30 metres from a lagoon, and 43 metres from a four lane road. As seen in the street view, the screen is at the top of a bank- the site is not level.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites- not even the nearby official Albany Acorn site.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 41.44%.

I am pausing my analysis here at 300. Over the next few weeks I will add more stations as I find them. The next post will be an Index of all 300 non-compliant stations found so far. I will also then show final figures for all stations, compliant and non-compliant.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 299- Coonabarabran (NSW)

December 10, 2019

Tuesday 10/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Coonabarabran (Showgrounds) 64008

Opened: 1879

Daily Temperature data from: 1957

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Dubbo, Inverell (1967).

Location:   Co-ordinates  -31.2786 149.2786

340km north-west of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image 2019:

The screen is 8 metres from one building, 15 to 20 metres from other buildings, and 8 to 15 metres from trees.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 41.3%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 298- Point Perpendicular (NSW)

December 10, 2019

Tuesday 10/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Jervis Bay (Point Perpendicular AWS) 68151

Opened: 2001

Daily Temperature data from: 2001

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Nowra.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -35.0936 150.8049

140km south of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

The screen is 30 metres from buildings, 25 metres from a solid stone wall, and close to areas of bare rock.

This Acorn station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at other Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 41.16%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 297- Pindari Dam (NSW)

December 10, 2019

Tuesday 10/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Pindari Dam 54104

Opened: 1971

Daily Temperature data from: 1971

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Inverell.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -29.3899 151.2448

500km north of Sydney, 275km south-west of Brisbane..

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

The screen, 120 metres below a massive dam wall, is too close to a bitumen road and bitumen carpark.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 41.02%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 296- Wanaaring (NSW)

December 9, 2019

Monday 09/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Wanaaring Post Office 48079

Opened: 1884

Daily Temperature data from: 1991

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bourke, Thargomindah.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -29.7029 144.1484

800km north-west of Sydney, 900km south-west of Brisbane..

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

Close to bare ground, dirt roads, (one has been bitumened) and close to buildings.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.88%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 295- Yanco (NSW)

December 9, 2019

Monday 09/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Yanco Agricultural Institute 74037

Opened: 1957

Daily Temperature data from: 1999

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates   -34.6222 146.4326

445km south-west of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

This is another rural site which should be ideal, but unfortunately it is neglected. The grass in the enclosure is up to 50cm high, and in every previous inspection it was 50 to 90cm high, except once when it was “recently mowed”.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.75%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 294- Tocumwal (NSW)

December 9, 2019

Monday 09/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Tocumwal Airport 74106

Opened: 1897

Daily Temperature data from: 1970

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Deniliquin, Rutherglen.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -35.8170 145.6000

230km north of Melbourne, 550km south-west of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image 2019:

In previous years the “patchy grass to 3cm” was described as “bare earth and patchy grass”- which is what the satellite image shows. The screen is close to bare dirt (an old driveway?), and 20 metres from a bitumen road, the other side of which is a large area of gravel. Several large trees are 30 to 45 metres away.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.61%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 293- Wellington (NSW)

December 8, 2019

Sunday 08/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Wellington (D&J Rural) 65034

Opened: 1881

Daily Temperature data from: 1965

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Bathurst, Dubbo.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -32.5635  148.9503 

250km north-west of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2015:

Google satellite image 2019:

The screen is 5 metres from a wide dirt driveway, 20 metres from railway tracks, 35 metres from a block of large 8 – 10 metre high sheds, and in a busy rural merchandise yard.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.47%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 292- Merimbula (NSW)

December 8, 2019

Sunday 08/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Merimbula Airport AWS 69147

Opened: 1998

Daily Temperature data from: 1998

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates   -36.9077 149.8989

350km south of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

The siting of this station is pretty good. Grass within the enclosure is supposed to be trimmed to a few centimetres. However the site plan records grass to 0.6m inside the enclosure. Site plans back to 2014 have grass to 0.8m. This station is not well maintained.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.33%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 291- Tenterfield (NSW)

December 8, 2019

Sunday 08/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Tenterfield (Federation Park) 56032

Opened: 1870

Daily Temperature data from: 1965

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates   -29.0479 152.0172

200km south-west of Brisbane, 500km north of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

Google street view 2010:

The screen is about 4 metres from a brick and concrete structure probably housing a water pump. There two other concrete slabs close to the screen. The area inside the enclosure appears to be gravel or else sprayed out.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.19%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 290- Mount Seaview (NSW)

December 7, 2019

Saturday 07/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Yarras (Mount Seaview) 60085

Opened: 1949

Daily Temperature data from: 1969

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Coffs Harbour, Port Macquarie (1977)

Location:   Co-ordinates   -31.3865 152.2482

445km south of Brisbane, 290km north of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

Skyline survey 2017:

The screen is much too close to large trees and will be shaded by them- until 10.00 a.m. in autumn and after 2.00pm in winter. Trees act as a blanket keeping the site warmer at night. The screen is also close to dirt roads and a driveway.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 40.06%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 289- Coffs Harbour Airport (NSW)

December 7, 2019

Saturday 07/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Coffs Harbour Airport 59151

Opened: 2013

Daily Temperature data from: 2013

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —

Location:   Co-ordinates   -30.3189 153.1162

315km south of Brisbane, 435km north of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

From 2014 to at least July 2018 this station was too close to large piles of rock, earth, and rubble, and 20 -25 metres from a dirt roadway. The instruments are on a mound 0.5m above the surrounding ground, a common feature at airports. Cold air will flow away from the screen on still nights.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 39.92%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 288- Yamba (NSW)

December 7, 2019

Saturday 07/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Yamba Pilot Station 58012

Opened: 1877

Daily Temperature data from: 1910

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Coffs Harbour

Location:   Co-ordinates   -29.4325  153.3632

220km south of Brisbane, 530km north of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2018:

Google satellite image 2019:

Google Photosphere view 2018 (courtesy 360 Immersive Tours):

The screen is 20 metres from many trees. While the site plan locates the carpark outside the fenced area, satellite and ground views clearly show cars parked near the screen, with the grass thinned by tyre tracks.

This Acorn station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at other Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 39.78%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 287- Lismore Airport (NSW)

December 6, 2019

Friday 06/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Lismore Airport 58214

Opened: 2002

Daily Temperature data from: 2002

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Yamba.

Location:   Co-ordinates   -28.8305 153.2601

155km south of Brisbane, 590km north of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2017:

Google satellite image 2019:

The screen is 10 metres from a plantation of trees (to 1.2 metres in 2017), with other plantings to the east, and 6 metres from a wide gravel driveway. Areas close to the screen including the small creek have been slashed in the satellite image. However the main problem is the enclosure is on a “raised block” 0.5m above ground level, which will allow cold air to drain away on still nights. (If it is just the screen mounted on a raised block, that is a very big no-no.)

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 39.64%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 286- Grafton Airport (NSW)

December 6, 2019

Friday 06/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Grafton Airport AWS 58161

Opened: 1973

Daily Temperature data from: 2006

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: —-

Location:   Co-ordinates   -29.7583 153.0297

250km south of Brisbane, 490km north of Sydney.

BOM site plan 2015:

But here is the BOM site plan from the previous month:

Google satellite image 2019:

The enclosure was overgrown with grass to 1 metre at least once- and it takes a while of neglect to grow to 1 metre. Since 2015 a large new tank has been built 28 metres away and surrounded by bitumen and sprayed out dirt.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations but not used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 39.5%.

The Wacky World of Weather Stations: No. 285- Hartz Mountain (Tas)

December 6, 2019

Friday 06/12/2019

Please refer back to my first post for site specifications and to No. 92- Logan City for 2018 specifications.  If you wish to check on this (or any) site for yourself, go to my post on how to check for yourself.

Station: Hartz Mountain (Keogh’s Pimple) 94191

Opened: 1994

Daily Temperature data from: 1996

Data used to adjust Acorn sites at: Cape Bruny.

Location:   Co-ordinates  -43.2006 146.7683

57km south-west of Hobart

BOM site plan 2016:

Google satellite image 2019:

The station is sited on a tiny area on a peak with the land falling steeply away on all sides. The screen is very close (a couple of metres) to rocks, a concrete slab, and trees.

This station is non-compliant, with temperatures reported at Latest Weather Observations and used to adjust data at Acorn sites.

FAIL

Percentage of all Australian sites not compliant: 39.36%.

That concludes Tasmania. Of 47 checkable stations, 20 (42.5%) are not compliant. A further 12 are marginal, leaving just 15 compliant- 31.9%.

Next we have a closer look at some stations in New South Wales.

Downwelling Infra-Red Radiation and Temperature: Part 1

January 22, 2020

Way back in July last year I posted about the long term decrease in downwelling IR at Cape Grim and Alice Springs, despite rising CO2.

From the Bureau’s solar radiation glossary,
“Downward infrared irradiance is a measurement of the irradiance arriving on a horizontal plane at the Earth’s surface, for wavelengths in the range 4 – 100 μm (the wavelength emitted by atmospheric gases and aerosols). It is related to a `representative (or effective radiative) temperature’ of the Earth’s atmosphere by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law:
E = σ T4
Where: E = irradiance measured [W/m2]
σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant [5.67 x 10-8 W/m2/K4
T = representative atmospheric temperature [K]
Consequently, this quantity will continue to have a positive value, even at night time. It can be measured using an Eppley PIR pyrgeometer.”

As atmospheric temperature increases, DWIR must also increase. This would be a symptom of warming.
A reader commented: ”What we need is DWIR nighttime measurements only (preferably without clouds) in a location where there is little or no water vapour. Atacama Chile would be perfect. Alice Springs maybe but less so. i am willing to bet that one couldn’t measure the DWIR at night without clouds in Atacama because it would be so low.”
I am unable to get data for Atacama, but here is DWIR data for Alice Springs for July 2018. July is mid-winter and usually dry and cloud free. No rain fell in July 2018 at the Alice.
Figure 1 shows maxima and minima for the month:
While July had no rain, there were several large weather changes shown by the spikes and dips in temperature. Coldest temperatures were on 12-13-14 July.
Fig.1: Surface temperatures Alice Springs July 2018

Next, downwelling IR. The weather changes show up in IR as well.
Fig.2: Downwelling IR Alice Springs July 2018

Now for IR in the hours of darkness:
Fig.3: Downwelling IR Alice Springs July 2018 at night (6pm to 6am)

Clearly, DWIR is real and measurable at night, in all conditions. It usually (but not always) decreases in a smooth curve. Putting it together, we see a clear daily cycle: DWIR usually increases rapidly in daytime, and decreases at night.
Fig.4: Downwelling IR Alice Springs July 2018 by day and night

Now we look at typical IR behaviour in cool, dry conditions on 12 and 13 July 2018. The x-axis is in 3 hourly divisions and I have marked in midnight of 12-13.
Fig.5: Downwelling IR Alice Springs 12-13 July 2018

Note the curve is not completely smooth: there are little variations due to pockets of different temperatures in the air. The lowest DWIR values (227.36 Watts/sq.metre averaged over one minute) are reached around 8.00 a.m. shortly after sunrise, then values rise rapidly before tapering off to peak in the late afternoon. During the night they decrease until the sun heats the ground again in the morning.
Now for the period 5 to 8 July:
Fig.6: Downwelling IR Alice Springs 5-8 July 2018

On the 6th and 8th strange things happen after midnight, almost certainly clouds.
Strange things also happen from 23 to 25 July. On the 24th a heavy bank of cloud comes over and clears with a sudden dry change after sundown, with more separated clouds arriving later at night before finally clearing about 9 a.m. next morning.
Fig.7: Downwelling IR Alice Springs 23 – 25 July 2018

How do I know those spikes were caused by clouds? Here’s direct radiation and IR for 23-25 July.
Fig.8: Downwelling IR and Direct Irradiance Alice Springs 23 – 25 July 2018

Direct irradiance is the radiation from the sun’s direct beam. It is zero at night but rises rapidly to peak at local solar noon, then rapidly falls to zero at dusk. Not all solar radiation reaches the surface. Some is reflected, some is scattered by dust, smoke, or rain drops, but on a clear day the pattern is like 23 July. On 24 July clouds block the sun’s direct rays for most of the day, and downwelling IR increases markedly. This is from warm moist air in the cloud which has come from somewhere else.
My conclusion:
Downwelling infra-red radiation (so called “back radiation”) is real and measurable including at night.
It is greatly increased by cloud and humidity, and there is always some moisture in the air even in the desert.
It results from the ground heating up in the daytime, which then loses heat by conduction, convection, and radiation, into the atmosphere where the IR is repeatedly absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gases (including water vapour).
A warmer atmosphere from whatever cause, natural or enhanced, will result in greater downwelling IR.


Future posts will look at the relationship between solar radiation, downwelling IR, and temperature.